Bio Final Exam Review

Bio Final Exam - Bio Final Exam Review ARTICLES Can Evolution Run in Reverse can protein that changes in one direction resume the old amino acid

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Bio Final Exam Review ARTICLES Can Evolution Run in Reverse?: can protein that changes in one direction resume the old amino acid sequence? Dollo’s Law and Thronton say no. Glucocorticoid: receptor for cortisol that reduces stress. Evolutionary history: 450 MYA, receptor grabbed other hormones and weakly attached to cortisol, w/in 40 MY, became sensitive to cortisol but lost ability to bind other hormones. During 40 MY, receptor changed in 37 spots, 2 of which increased sensitivity to cortisol, other prevented receptor from grabbing other hormones. Experimentally made changes to hormone binding receptor and it became sensitive to cortisol. When reversed, got a completely dead receptor. Can go forward, but not backwards because there were 5 additional mutations that aided the transition that restricted ability to go backwards Life Span of a Rodent may Aid Human Health: mole rat lives underground and digs tunnels. Feed on tubers. Live longer than other rodents (28 vs. 2 years), never get cancer. They have 2 systems to prevent excessive cell division. Humans and mammals have contact inhibition which shuts down cell division, mole rats have this and second system that turns off cell division all together. Longevity is due to no cancer, no predators, low fat diet of tubers. A Person Can Pay Off Sleep Debt: by sleeping late on the weekends. How best to mitigate the effects of sleep deprivation? Recovery sleep did not fully reverse declines in performance tests; cognitive impairments but not sleepiness after recovery sleep. But you CAN bank sleep. People recover much faster from poor sleep when preceded by sleeping extra for a week. Mammals spend 1/3 of life sleeping although seems to have no survival value since sleeping results in vulnerability to predators. Sleeping is critical for memory formation, processing of info. Need for REM is related to brain size and more sleep is needed during active brain development. Round worms go through lethargus and when deprived of it, they are less responsive and coordinated. Going Viral: create flu vaccine in eggs. Take an egg, make hole in top, inject virus, it grows, harvest the fluid in the sac, purify it and kill it. Works pretty well and always leftover seasonal flu vaccine. No need to make new method, even with the delays in H1N1 vaccine availability (harder to harvest because it sometimes kills the egg when injected) makes people wonder if there is a way to cut egg time down from 6 months to 2 or 3 months. New methods being studied are virus is dropped into an animal cell and grown and cloning. Sometimes new methods aren’t as potent as egg. Pigs Prove to be Smart: capable of complex reasoning. Rank with apes, dolphins in passing “mirror self- recognition” test that marks self-awareness and advanced intelligence. Can remember where food is stored and how much food there is. Can learn complicated tricks. Mirror-savvy pigs found food reflected in mirror, mirror-naïve pigs roughed up the mirror but didn’t know where the food was. Speech Gene Shows its Bossy Nature:
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2009 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Lanno during the Fall '08 term at Ohio State.

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Bio Final Exam - Bio Final Exam Review ARTICLES Can Evolution Run in Reverse can protein that changes in one direction resume the old amino acid

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