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EXAM 2 REVIEW - EXAM 2 REVIEW Ch 5 Social Groups and...

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EXAM 2 REVIEW Ch. 5 – Social Groups and Organizations Social groups: two or more people who identify with and interact with one another Crowds: loosely formed collection of people in one place Categories: people with a status in common Primary groups: small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships Secondary groups: large and impersonal social group, pursue common goal Types of leadership = instrumental (focus on completion of tasks) and expressive (focuses group’s well-being) Styles of leadership: Authoritarian = instrumental concerns, personal change in decisions, enforces orders. Effectiveness – group ; fast-acting in crisis Democratic = expressive, everyone included in decisions. Effectiveness – group ; fast-acting ; creative solutions Laissez Faire = leave it alone. Effectiveness – least effective in promoting group goals Group Conformity Research: Asch’s research: Match standard line (visual perception) – group convinced one person to change answer even though the correct response was clear. 1/3 of subjects chose to conform and answer question incorrectly despite their personal beliefs Milgram’s research: Hitler shock study; only a few questioned the authority figure. 2/3 went all the way to 450 volts. Second study, ordinary people pressured strangers to increase shock amount. Implications = people likely to follow authority and groups Groupthink: tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of an issue Reference groups: social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations/decisions In-group: members feel respect and loyalty Out-group: people feel a sense of competition or opposition Types of formal organizations: Normative (volunteer), Coercive (punishment/treatment), Utilitarian (paid)
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Bureaucracy: model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. Key elements =
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