Ch5 CD - Ch.5: PHYSICAL GROWTH-The average newborn weighs...

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Ch. 5: Physical Development in Infancy PHYSICAL GROWTH -The average newborn weighs just over 7 pounds -By 5 months, the average infant’s birthweight has doubled to around 15 pounds -By the first birthday, the infant’s weight has tripled to 22 pounds -By the end of the second year, the child’s weight has quadrupled since birth -Cephalocaudal principle states that growth follows a pattern that starts with the head and upper body and then proceeds to the rest of the body -Proximodistal principle states that growth proceeds from the center of the body outward -Principle of hierarchical integration states that simple skills typically develop separately and independently -Principle of the independence of systems suggests that different body systems grow at different rates NERVOUS SYSTEM AND THE BRAIN -Neurons are the basic cells of the nervous system -Synapses are the gaps between neurons through which communication occurs -Myelin is the fatty substance that acts like insulation to assist speed of neural impulses -Cerebral cortex is the upper layer of the brain -Plasticity refers to the degree which a developing structure or behavior is modifiable due to experience -Sensitive period is a specific and limited time in an organism’s life when it is particularly susceptible to environmental influences relating to a facet of development LIFE CYCLES IN INFANCY -Awake states: alertness nonalert waking fussing crying -Transition states between sleep and waking:
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drowsiness daze sleep-wake transition -Sleep states:
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