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Ch7guide - Ch 7 Reading Guide 1 Most people(65 in the...

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Ch. 7 Reading Guide 1. Most people (65%) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) live in urban areas. 2. The causes of rapid urban growth in the 20th century are high rates of natural increase and large number of rural dwellers shifting their residence to the city. The consequences of this rapid urban growth are the development of squatter settlements on the outskirts of urban areas, extremely crowded living conditions in deteriorating buildings, and heavy traffic. 3. Squatter settlements are neighborhoods that are generally illegal since they are usually situated on underused private or state land without the approval of the landowners. From an initial stage of transitional construction with flimsy materials, most houses are rapidly transformed into stone or construction structures. 4. Madina is the ancient urban core of Middle Eastern cities. Since WWII, migration to the cities has also brought large numbers of recent migrants into the madina as many of the madina’s wealthier professionals, merchants, and entrepreneurs have left the old central district for the nearby quarters once occupied by foreign colonial officials. 5. The largest urban agglomeration in MENA is Cairo, Egypt. There are housing problems that exist in this city. Affordable housing is exctremely hard to find, causing a widening gap between the “haves” and the “have-nots”. Greater Cairo is dotted with more than 100 informal settlements consisting of illegally built accommodations that house 80% of the population without the benefit of running water, proper sewage disposal, and electricity. Many of the poor also live illegally in tombs in Cairo’s vast City of the Dead. 6. MENA is often described as an economic and cultural crossroad where contrasting cultures meet and clash. 7. More than 50% of the region’s population is Arab. 8. The two largest non-Arab ethnic groups in the region are Turks and Persians. These groups are concentrated in Turkey and Iran respectively.
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