Ch. 1 Reading Guide
1. Development is a process of change that leads to improved well-being in people’s
lives, takes into account the needs of future generations, and is compatible with
local cultural and environmental contexts. It is hard to define because it
encompasses many different aspects, including some nonmaterial things that are
hard to measure in a numerical sense.
2. The four components that figure into the development process are: people,
natural environment, culture, and history.
3. Since World War II, countries have been unofficially divided into separate
“world” based on geopolitical and developmental considerations. The First
World is a Cold War designation that initially included the countries of North
America, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, and Japan. The Second
World was distinguished by the “enemies” in the Cold War and was made up of
the Soviet Union, its client states in Eastern Europe, and China. The Third World
embraced countries in Latin America, Africa, Asia, and the Middle East, that
were viewed as less developed or economically distressed.
4. Agricultural Revolutions
: domestication of plants and animals allowed
productivity to soar so that farmers could produce more than they consumed,
resulting in towns and cities appearing as people no longer had to live on their
own farmland and provide their own food.
: period of rapid technological change and innovation that began in
England in the mid-eighteenth century and then spread worldwide; accompanied by the
development of inexpensive, massive amounts of inanimate energy through the use of
: these days, our ability to produce, store, access, and apply
information is massive and nearly instantaneous; how information is stored, produced,
and accessed created the revolution and in the Information Age it comes down to a single
transforming technology: the microprocessor
5. The world’s population began to grow more rapidly in 1650, when the population
totaled 500 million.
The world population reached 1 billion around 1850. Within
the next 100 years the population reached 2 billion. Today the world population
is more than 6.6 billion.
6. The three centers of dense population in the world today are the Indian
subcontinent, eastern China and adjacent areas, and Europe. The high
concentrations in these areas were caused by an early start in the Agricultural
Revolution and from empire building.
7. Population density is the number of people per unit area. Physiologic density
number of people per square mile of arable (farmable) land.
8. The four stages of the demographic transformation: