Chapter 2 - Chapter2 -Theories are explanations and...

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Chapter 2 -Theories are explanations and predictions concerning phenomena of interest, providing a framework for understanding the relationship among an organized set of facts or principles MAJOR PERSPECTIVES ON CHILD DEVELOPMENT Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Contextual Evolutionary Psychodynamic Perspective -Freud’s (1856-1939) psychoanalytic theory suggests that unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior -Psychosexual development: a series of stages that children pass through in which pleasure, or gratification, is focused on a particular biological function and body part -Fixation: behavior reflecting an earlier stage of development -Three aspects of personality according to Freud: id: raw, unorganized, inborn part of personality present at birth ego: rational and reasonable part of personality superego: the aspect of personality that represents a person’s conscious, incorporating distinctions between right and wrong -Erikson’s (1902-1994) psychosocial theory development encompasses changes in our interactions with and understandings of one another, as well as in our knowledge and understanding of ourselves as members of society -Erikson suggested that growth and change continue throughout the life span Behavioral Perspective -Suggests that keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment -If we known the stimuli, we can predict the behavior -Classical conditioning: an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about that type of response -John B. Watson (1878-1958) was one of the first American psychologists to advocate a behavioral perspective
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-Operant conditioning: a form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2009 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Miller during the Fall '07 term at Ohio State.

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Chapter 2 - Chapter2 -Theories are explanations and...

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