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Quantum Mechanical Atom notes

Quantum Mechanical Atom notes - The Quantum Mechanical Atom...

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The Quantum Mechanical Atom Characteristics of Atoms Atoms: possess mass contain positive nuclei contain electrons occupy volume have various properties attract one another combine to form molecules Electromagnetic Radiation Used to study atoms “Light” is just one form of electromagnetic radiation Enery can be transported by it -Wavelength (λ): distance between 2 successive crests or troughs. (units = meters or nanometers) -Frequency (v): number of waves passing a certain point over a unit of time -Amplitude: height of the wave measured from the axis of propagation; a measure of intensity λ x v = c (where c is the speed of light: c=3.00 x 10^8 m/s) Light and Energy -Max Planck: electromagnetic radiation can be viewed as a stream of tiny packets of energy called photons -The energy of a photon is dependent on the radiation's frequency -Light is wave-like and particle-like (“particles” = photons) -The relationship...E photon =hv photon (Planck's constant: h = 6.626 x 10^-34 J(s) Intensity and Energy -Intensity and energy are 2 different measurements -Energy = related to the frequency of a photon -Intensity = related to the number of photons Emission Spectra -Excited atoms emit photons in order to relax back to the ground state -When these photons are emitted the frequencies of the photons are specific -An emission spectrum plots the intensity of light as a function of frequency. The plots appear as lines on the emission spectra. Quantized Energy -Atoms can only absorb and emit radiation of specific energies or frequencies because the values are restricted. This energy is said to be quantized. -This is because when photons are absorbed (or emitted) the electrons in an atom are absorbing (or emitting) the energy.
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How do we give the position of an electron if it is wave-like? 1. A particle occupies a particular location, a wave has no exact position. 2. Electrons are always spread out in space due to their wave-like properties.
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Quantum Mechanical Atom notes - The Quantum Mechanical Atom...

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