Soc Ch 3 - Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old...

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Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old Age Social Experience: The Key to Our Humanity - Without social experience, a child is not able to act or communicate in a meaningful way and seems to be more of an object than a person - Socialization: lifelong social experience by which people develop their human potential and learn culture - Personality: person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling o Personality hardly develops without social experience - Human Development: Nature and Nurture o Biological Sciences = Nature – Darwin led people to think that human behavior was instinctive. Incorrect! Criminals are not born that way or that women are “naturally” more emotional o Social Sciences = Nurture – Watson developed a theory called behaviorism (behavior is not instinctive but learned) Nurture is our nature - Social Isolation o Research with complete isolation, wire monkeys, and terry cloth monkeys. All survived but terry monkeys did better socially. (3 months = okay, 6 months = irreversible damage) o Children that have been abused through isolation are nursed back to physical health but language skills remain that of a young child, even later in life Understanding Socialization - Sigmund Freud’s Elements of Personality o Humans have two basic needs at birth that operate at an unconscious level and create deep inner tension: Eros; “life instinct”; need for bonding Thanatos; “death instinct” o Model of personality: Id: human being’s basic drives; unconscious and demand immediate satisfaction Ego: person’s conscious efforts to balance innate pleasure-seeking drives with the demands of society; arises as we gain awareness of our own existence and face the fact that we can’t have everything we want Superego: cultural values and norms internalized by an individual; tells us why we can’t have everything we want
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o Id-centered child has a world jumbled with physical sensations that bring either pleasure or pain. As super ego develops, child learns moral rights and wrongs o Culture, in the form of superego, represses selfish demands, forcing people to look beyond their own desires - Jean Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development: studied how people think and understand o Sensorimotor stage: level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses o Preoperational stage: level of human development at which individuals first use language and other symbols o Concrete operational stage: level of human development at which individuals first see casual connections in their surroundings o Formal operational stage: level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically - Lawrence Kohlberg’s Theory of Moral Development: built on Piaget to study moral reasoning
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This note was uploaded on 12/19/2009 for the course SOC 101 taught by Professor Miller during the Fall '07 term at Ohio State.

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Soc Ch 3 - Chapter 3: Socialization: From Infancy to Old...

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