REHY Sex Ed Aff Neg - MichiganClassic 2017 OW.docx -...

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Unformatted text preview: Aff/neg – REHY Sex Ed – classic ow Notes What REHY does REHY covers a variety of issues SIECUS; no date; Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S; “Support the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782, H.R. 3324);” %202017-2018/sex%20ed%20aff%20articles/real%20educaton%20for%20healthy%20youth%20act%20%20SIECUS.pdf //EK The legislation provides comprehensive sexuality education to adolescents and young adults in public schools, communities, and institutions of higher education that— • recognizes the right of young people to information in order to make healthy and responsible decisions about their sexual health; • imparts the information they need to know about— ◦ anatomy and physiology; ◦ growth and development; ◦ healthy relationships; ◦ prevention of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, through abstinence and contraception; ◦ gender, gender identity, and sexual orientation; and ◦ protection from dating violence, sexual assault, bullying, and harassment • is evidence-based or incorporate characteristics of effective programs proven to change sexual behavior in young people; • includes medically accurate and developmentally appropriate information; • promotes educational achievement, critical thinking, decision-making, and self-efficacy ; • fosters leadership skills and community involvement; • is culturally and linguistically appropriate; • is inclusive of lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and heterosexual students; and • builds on the Personal Responsibility Education Program and the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Initiative. REHY intentionally excludes ineffective sexual education SIECUS; no date; Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S; “Support the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782, H.R. 3324);” %202017-2018/sex%20ed%20aff%20articles/real%20educaton%20for%20healthy%20youth%20act%20%20SIECUS.pdf //EK The legislation ensures that no federal funds are used for health education programs that— • deliberately withhold life-saving information about HIV; • are medically inaccurate or have been scientifically shown to be ineffective; • promote gender stereotypes; • are insensitive and unresponsive to the needs of sexually active adolescents or lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender youth (LGBT); or • are inconsistent with the ethical imperatives of medicine and public health. Fed and REHY The role of the federal government in REHY act SIECUS; no date; Sexuality Information and Education Council of the U.S; “Support the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782, H.R. 3324);” %202017-2018/sex%20ed%20aff%20articles/real%20educaton%20for%20healthy%20youth%20act%20%20SIECUS.pdf //EK The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act includes — • Sense of Congress outlining what sex education programs must look like in order to receive federal funding and restricting federal funding to programs that do not meet a bare minimum standard. • Grants for comprehensive sexuality education for adolescents . • Grants for comprehensive sexuality education in institutions of higher education. • Grants for pre-service and in-service teacher training for K-12 sex educators. • Amends the Public Health Service Act and the Elementary and Secondary Education Act to allow education that is inclusive of lesbian, gay, and bisexual students and contraceptive distribution in schools, respectively. Policy - 1AC Plan Plan: The United States Federal Government should pass the Real Education for Healthy Youth Act Disease adv New, antibiotic-resistant strains of STI’s are emerging and threaten a global epidemic WHO 7/7 (World Health Organization, July 7, 2017, “Antibiotic-resistant gonorrhoea on the rise, new drugs needed,” ) Data from 77 countries show that antibiotic resistance is making gonorrhoea – a common sexually-transmitted infection – much harder, and sometimes impossible, to treat. "The bacteria that cause gonorrhoea are particularly smart. Every time we use a new class of antibiotics to treat the infection, the bacteria evolve to resist them ," said Dr Teodora Wi, Medical Officer, Human Reproduction, at WHO. WHO reports widespread resistance to older and cheaper antibiotics. Some countries – particularly high-income ones , where surveillance is best – are finding cases of the infection that are untreatable by all known antibiotics. "These cases may just be the tip of the iceberg, since systems to diagnose and report untreatable infections are lacking in lowerincome countries where gonorrhoea is actually more common ," adds Dr Wi. Each year, an estimated 78 million people are infected with gonorrhoea*. Gonorrhoea can infect the genitals, rectum, and throat. Complications of gonorrhoea disproportionally affect women, including pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy and infertility, as well as an increased risk of HIV. Decreasing condom use, increased urbanization and travel, poor infection detection rates, and inadequate or failed treatment all contribute to this increase. Monitoring drug resistance The WHO Global Gonococcal Antimicrobial WHO GASP data from 2009 to 2014 find widespread resistance to ciprofloxacin [97% of countries that reported data in that period found drug-resistant strains], increasing resistance to azithromycin [81%], and the emergence of resistance to the current last-resort treatment: the extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) oral cefixime or injectable ceftriaxone [ 66%]. Currently, in most countries, ESCs are the only single antibiotic that remain effective for treating gonorrhoea. But resistance to cefixime – and Surveillance Programme (WHO GASP), monitors trends in drug-resistant gonorrhoea. more rarely to ceftriaxone – has now been reported in more than 50 countries. As a result, WHO issued updated global treatment recommendations in 2016 advising doctors to give 2 antibiotics: ceftriaxone and azithromycin. The R&D pipeline for gonorrhoea is relatively empty, with only 3 new candidate drugs in various stages of clinical development: solithromycin, for which a phase III trial has recently been completed; zoliflodacin, which has completed a phase II trial; and gepotidacin, which has also completed a phase II trial. The development of new antibiotics is not very attractive for commercial pharmaceutical companies. Treatments are taken only for short periods of time (unlike medicines for chronic diseases) and they become less effective as resistance develops, meaning that the supply of new drugs constantly needs to Development of new drugs be replenished. Anti-biotic resistant STD’s will kill millions Koba 13 (Mark Koba, 5-2-2013, "Sex Superbug Could Be 'Worse Than AIDS': Doctor," CNBC, ) An antibiotic-resistant strain of gonorrhea—now considered a superbug—has some analysts saying that the bacteria's effects could match those of AIDS. "This might be a lot worse than AIDS in the short run because the bacteria is more aggressive and will affect more people quickly ," said Alan Christianson, a doctor of naturopathic medicine. Even though nearly 30 million people have died from AIDS related causes worldwide, Christianson believes the effect of the gonorrhea bacteria is more direct. "Getting gonorrhea from this strain might put someone into septic shock and death in a matter of days," Christianson said. "This is very dangerous." "It's an emergency situation," said William Smith, executive director of the National Coalition of STD Directors. "As time moves on, it's getting more hazardous." This gonorrhea strain, HO41, was discovered in Japan two years ago in a 31-year-old female sex worker who had been screened in 2009. The bacteria has since been found in Hawaii, California and Norway. Because it resists current antibiotic treatment, the strain has been placed in the superbug category with other resistant bacteria, such as MRSA and CRE. These superbugs kill about half the people they attack, and nearly one in 20 hospital patients become infected with one , according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Though no deaths from HO41 have been reported, efforts to combat it must continue, Smith said. "We have to keep beating the drum on this," he said. " The potential for disaster is great." According to the CDC, about 20 million a year contract a sexually transmitted disease (STD) and result in about $16 billion in medical costs . More than 800,000 of STD cases reported are gonorrhea infections, with most occurring in people between the ages of 15 and 24. Gonorrhea is transmitted through unprotected sexual contact. Untreated, the disease can cause a number of health complications in women, including infertility. In men, the disease can be very painful and lead to sterility. It can also trigger other life-threatening illnesses, including heart infections. Gonorrhea can be hard to detect. It often shows no symptoms in about half of women and in about 5 percent of men. Gonorrhea infection rates were at historic lows until two years ago, according to the CDC. "That's what's kind of scary about this," Smith said. "We are at lows in terms of infections, but this strain is a very tricky bug and we don't have anything medically to fight it right now." Since 1998, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only four new antibiotics of any kind, according to the Infectious Disease Society of America. The last approval was in 2010. Only seven antibiotics are in an advanced stage of development—still years away from approval and use. Recognizing the problem, Congress passed a law last year referred to as the Gain Act (Generating Antibiotics Incentives Now) to help speed antibiotic development. But Smith said more needs to be done. In a briefing on Capitol Hill last week, he urged Congress to target nearly $54 million in immediate funding to help find an antibiotic for HO41 and to conduct an education and we don't have the resources to fight this as it stands now." Avoiding the disease completely is the best course, experts said. "People need to practice safe sex, like always," public awareness campaign. "I'm hopeful we'll get the additional funds, but I can't say for sure," Smith said. "What I do know is Christianson said. "Anyone beginning a new relationship should get tested along with their partner. The way gonorrhea works, not everyone knows they have it. And with this new strain it's This is a disaster just waiting to happen," Christianson said. "It's time to do something about it before it explodes. "These superbugs, including the gonorrhea strain, are a health threat. We need to move now before it gets out of hand." even more important than ever to find out. " All superbugs must be dealt with before it's too late, he said. " risks extinction Ross D. E. MacPhee and Alex D. Greenwood; 2013; American Museum of Natural History, USA and Alex Greenwood holds a Ph.D. degree and works as the Head of the Department of Wildlife Diseases at the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research in Berlin, Germany, and Professor of wildlife diseases in the Department of Veterinary Medicine of the Freie Universität Berlin, Berlin, Germany; International Journal of Evolutionary Biology; “Infectious Disease, Endangerment, and Extinction;” January 4 th, 2013; //EK Although the fossil record clearly establishes that the fate of all species is to eventually die out, it is obvious from the same record that the rate of disappearance of individual species varies significantly [22]. As already noted, inferences about how (as opposed to when) an individual species disappeared must be developed inductively and retrospectively. An important guideline is that apparent causes of extinction that are diachronic (repeatedly affect species across time) are inherently more plausible than ones that are claimed to have occurred only once, or apply to only one taxon. Although this means that explanations about individual extinctions are not strictly testable, they can nevertheless be evaluated in terms of likelihood, which is the approach currently taken by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and several other conservation organizations interested in compiling extinction statistics [23, 24]. It is an accepted tenet in conservation biology that any severe, continuing threat to a species might eventually contribute to its extinction [25]. From this perspective, it is also accepted that diseases presenting with very high levels of mortality—as in the case of a highly transmissible infection that is newly emergent in a population—can cause outright endangerment. But are there conditions under which a disease, probably in combination with other threats, might so imperil a species to cause its complete disappearance? MacPhee and Marx [19] considered this issue from the standpoint of model pathogenic features that a disease-provoking organism might exhibit in forcing the extinction of a given species. These features include: Now is key – STI rates are at an all-time high and better education is necessary Fox 16 (Maggie Fox, 10-19-2016, "Sexually transmitted disease cases hit new high in U.S.," NBC News, ) More cases of sexually transmitted diseases were reported last year than ever before , federal officials said Wednesday — just as state and local health departments that could help fight them lose funding. More than 1.5 million people were reported with chlamydia, the most common sexually transmitted disease (STD), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported. The CDC recorded nearly 400,000 cases of gonorrhea and nearly 24,000 cases of syphilis. "The STD epidemic is getting worse in the United States and, in fact, is at its highest levels yet," said Dr. Jonathan Mermin, director of CDC’s National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD, and TB Prevention. The CDC reported a record year for STDs in 2014, also, but the trend is worsening, Mermin told NBC News. "Last year was the first year that we saw increases but those increases are actually continuing and at a higher rate," Mermin said. The new numbers translate to a 19 percent increase in syphilis cases, a 13 percent rise in gonorrhea and a 6 percent increase in chlamydia , Mermin said. While some of the new numbers may be due to better reporting of cases, most of the rise appears to be a real increase in new infections, he said. Gay and bisexual men account for many of the new cases, and the biggest numbers are among young adults, especially those in their late teens and early 20s. "Half of all STDs occur in youth under age 20 ," Mermin said. Part of the increase may be due to better treatment for HIV, which may make people believe — usually wrongly — they do not need to use condoms . CDC officials say. At the same time, state and local health departments are losing funding. "That is correlated with an eroding infrastructure for sexually transmitted disease clinics," Mermin said. "In 2012 alone, half of state public health programs had to close some of those clinics." That means young people most vulnerable to new infection have fewer places to go for help, advice, testing and treatment, he said. All three infections can be cured with antibiotics, but people often don’t even know they are infected. In the early stages none of them cause obvious symptoms. Mermin Good sex education prevents STDs." And Mermin has a ready answer for people who fear talking about sex might create an expectation among youths that they should be having sex. "There is no evidence that talking about sexually transmitted disease prevention increases sexual activity," he said. Some pregnant women are falling through the gaps and having babies infected with said talking openly about STDs can help. "Parents and providers and teachers can provide young people with safe and effective ways to prevent STDs," he said. " syphilis at birth, the CDC statistics show. Mermin said there’s no excuse for this. "Clinicians can make STD screening a standard part of clinical care," he said. "The way to prevent infants from dying of syphilis is to help women get diagnosed and treated when they are pregnant," Mermin said. Congenital syphilis cases hit a record high in 2015, CDC said. More than 430 babies were born with syphilis. "Up to 40 percent of babies born to women with untreated syphilis may be stillborn, or die from the infection as a newborn," the CDC said. While some women get no prenatal care at all — about 22 percent of women whose babies were born infected had no prenatal care in 2014 — others may be tested early in pregnancy but not later on, he said. An earlier CDC report showed that 43 percent of pregnant women with syphilis who did see a doctor or other health professional while pregnant nonetheless got no treatment for the infection. All pregnant women should be tested again in the third trimester of pregnancy, he said. New sex ed prevents STD spread FOSE; 2014; Future of Sex Education; “Youth Health and Rights in Sex Education;” May 2014; %20articles/real%20education%20for%20healthy%20youth%20act%20-%20FOSE.pdf //EK sex education which provides accurate, complete, and developmentally appropriate information on human sexuality, including risk eduction strategies and contraception helps young people take steps to protect their health, including delaying sex, using condoms or contraception, and being monogamous. [5] A 2012 study that examined 66 comprehensive sexual risk . Research has repeatedly found that reduction programs found them to be an effective public health strategy to reduce adolescent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs .[12] Research from the National Survey of Family Growth assessed the impact of sexuality education on youth sexual risk-taking for young people ages 15-19 and found that teens who received comprehensive sex education were 50 percent less likely to experience pregnancy than those who received abstinence-only -until-marriage programs. [13] Even accounting for differences in household income and education, states which teach sex education and/or HIV education that covers abstinence as well as contraception, tend to have the lowest pregnancy rates. Targeting secondary education is key – STDs spread among teens Institute of Medicine; 1997; (US) Committee on Prevention and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases; “The Hidden Epidemic: Confronting Sexually Transmitted Diseases;” //EK approximately 3 million American teenagers acquire an STD (CDC, DSTD/HIVP, 1993). During the past two decades, sexual intercourse among adolescents has steadily increased, resulting in an enlarging pool of young men and women at risk for STDs (CDC, 1995c). As a result, STDs, unintended pregnancies, and other health problems that result from sexual intercourse have increased among adolescents in the United States (AGI, 1994). Adolescents (10-19 years of age ) and young adults (20-24 years of age) are the age groups at greatest risk for acquiring an STD, for a number of reasons: they are more likely to have multiple sex partners; they may be more likely to engage in unprotected intercourse; and their partners may be at higher risk for being infected compared to Every year, most adults (Cates, 1990; Quinn and Cates, 1992; AGI, 1994; CDC, DSTDP, 1995). Compared to older women, female adolescents and young women are also more susceptible to cervical infections, such as gonorrhea and chlamydial infection, because the cervix of female adolescents and young women is especially sensitive to infection by certain sexually transmitted organisms (Cates, 1990). In addition, adolescents and young people are at greater risk for substance use and other contributing factors that may increase risk for STDs than older persons; these issues are discussed in Chapter 3. Although overall rates of gonorrhea have been declining in the general population for over a decade, this decline has been less pronounced among adolescents than in other age groups. During 1993 and 1994, the gonorrhea rate for 15-19-year-old adolescents increased nea...
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