2410 -week2

2410 -week2 - 9/21/2009 Chapters 1-2 A set of concepts and...

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9/21/2009 1 Chapters 1-2 A set of concepts and propositions that describe, organize, and explain a set of observations ± What makes a theory good? ± must be parsimonious ± must be falsifiable ± must have heuristic value ± Psychoanalytic theories ± Learning theories ± Cognitive-Developmental theory ± Sociocultural theory ± Information-Processing view ± Ethological view ± Ecological Systems ± Freud’s psychosexual theory Contributions Criticisms ± idea of unconscious motivation ± focus on later consequences of early experiences ± no real evidence of early conflicts affecting adult personality ± Learning theories Contributions Criticisms ± knowledge about ± oversimplified basic learning from well- controlled tests ± practical applications (behaviour modification) ± ignores genetic contributions to behaviour ± ignores changes in cognitive abilities
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9/21/2009 2 ± Piaget’s Cognitive-Developmental theory Contributions Criticisms ± focus on how children ± underestimates think ± educational applications ± strong influence on other theories abilities of children Contributions Criticisms ± detailed accounts of development from ± usually employs “artificial” laboratory rigorous experimental methods ± investigates wide range of cognitive processes studies ± computer model underestimates human cognition Contributions Criticisms ± richest description of environmental ± generalizability from one environment to next influences ± suggests interventions for optimizing development at various levels of society questioned ± not complete; a complement to existing theories ± Active / Passive role of child Active Passive Children actively contribute to own development Children are passive recipients of environmental influence ± Continuity / Discontinuity of development Continuous Discontinuous Development is additive and gradual Development is a series of discrete stages
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9/21/2009 3 Continuous development: Age-related changes occur gradually 13 Discontinuous development: Age-related changes include occasional large shifts so that children of different ages seem qualitatively different ± Nature / Nurture Nature Nurture Biological predispositions are most important Environmental influences are most important Interaction of biology and environment ± Read existing studies ± Form hypotheses ± Design study ± Collect dat © 2005 by Nelson, a division of Thomson Canada Limited. 16 Collect data ± Analyze data ± Reformulate hypothesis ± Start over Types of Data Collection ± Case Studies (e.g., baby biographies) ± Self-Report (objective, projective) ± Naturalistic Observation Eit ± Experiments ± Psychophysical Study Designs ± Cross-sectional Design ± Longitudinal Design ± Cross-sequential Design ± Structured interview/questionnaire ± Treats each participant equally for comparison purposes ± Cons ± Cannot be used with very young children ± Participants my lie ± Cannot test causality ± Pros ±
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2009 for the course PSYCH 2410 taught by Professor Dr.trzesniewski during the Spring '09 term at UWO.

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2410 -week2 - 9/21/2009 Chapters 1-2 A set of concepts and...

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