2410 -week4

2410 -week4 - Review of last week What is constructivism?...

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1 Review of last week • What is constructivism? • What are the strengths & weaknesses of Piaget’s theory? What is constructivism? What other theories does it What is constructivism? What other theories does it contrast with? • What is object permance? What does it measure? • What is the ‘Zone of Proximal Development’ Beyond Piaget Outline • The study of cognition in infants • The case of number Multiple representations Multiple representations • Strategy Development – non-linear development Development of new methods to study infants • Piaget • Reliant on action Ignore perception • Behavior needs to be elicited Testing infant cognition But how?? I can’t talk I can’t move very well I can’t draw I can’t count All I can do is suck, look and turn my head Novel methods to study infants Infancy Lab
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2 Dependent measure Sucking rate Looking time Novel methods to study infants Infancy Lab • Tricky research methodologies • You cannot tell an infant to sit still and to concentrate Novel methods to study infants Habituation • Present infants with a certain type of stimulus until they look away for a certain amount of time or their sucking rate decreases to a predefined level • Habituation vs. Dishabituation Change of stimulus variable “TEST” Habituation: Example • Infants ability to detect changes in schematic face-like stimuli (adapted from Simion et al., 2002, Journal of Experimental Child Psychology) Habituation
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3 TEST TEST TEST TEST
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4 TEST 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 12345 Test Trials Looking Tim second Familiar configuration Novel methods to study infants: Preferential looking Novel methods to study infants: Preferential looking Look at CAR! Where is CAR? DIFFERENCE IN LOOKING TIME Violation of Expectancy Experiments Challenges to Piaget •According to Piaget infants start to display object permanence between 8 and 24 months (gradually) •When the infant can retrieve a hidden object from a new location •Groundbreaking research from infant psychologists Elizabeth Spelke and Renne Baillergeon has shown that infants know a great deal more about objects than Piaget credited them with
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5 Challenges to Piaget http://web.uvic.ca/~lalonde/Psyc435A/object/ Object permanence earlier than originally thought • By using looking time measures, researchers have been able to show that: • Infants reason about the behavior of objects when they are out of sight • Do demonstrate the hallmarks of object permanence Object permanence earlier than originally thought • Evidence strengthens the notion of INNATE knowledge representations • Nativist perspective • Symbolic thought without sensori-motor interactions • Goes against a constructivist notion of cognitive development • Spelke refers to: “Core knowledge” Can infants represent number?
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2410 -week4 - Review of last week What is constructivism?...

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