2410 -week7

2410 -week7 - 10/25/2009 Chapter 3 The single most basic...

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10/25/2009 1 Chapter 3 The single most basic question about child development is how nature and nurture interact to shape the developmental process Nature refers to our biological endowment, especially the genes we receive from our parents Nurture refers to the wide range of environments, both physical and social, that influence our development Developmentalists now recognize that every characteristic we possess is created through the joint workings of nature and nurture Accordingly, they ask how nature and nurture work together to shape development What do we want to learn? To understand individual differences Why do some people growing up in the same environments have different outcomes? Why do some people growing up in different environments have the same outcomes? To understand origins of behaviour Univariate analyses Multivariate analyses To design better interventions/treatments Identifying amount of genetic variance or specific genes is not the end We have limited understanding of the causes of behaviors and illnesses Thus, have limited success with changing behavior and illnesses Being able to pinpoint mechanisms provide the possibility of much more effective interventions/treatments
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10/25/2009 2 No Behaviour is influences by a complex interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors Gene variants that cause negative outcomes in some people may results in good outcomes in others So, it is not desirable to alter such genes Plus, there are social and ethical considerations Yes Some individuals at very high genetic risk (e.g. the identical co-twin of an individual with illness) do not develop illness This suggests that unshared environmental factors may have protected the co-twin Also, some individuals at low genetic risk (e.g. no family history of similar disorder) develop illness This suggests that unshared environmental factors may have caused illness in the co-twin Phenotype Observable characteristics & behaviours is expressed through Genotype Inherited genes Environment Selective breeding experiments (animals) Tryon’s “maze bright” and “maze dull” rats
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10/25/2009 3 Family studies Compare members of family who live together Twin design Are identical twins reared together more similar than fraternal twins reared together?
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2410 -week7 - 10/25/2009 Chapter 3 The single most basic...

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