1WelcomePsych 2410Professor Greg MoranLecture 1The Development of Emotion Within the Context of the Attachment RelationshipChapter 11Emotional Development, Temperament and Attachment What are emotions?What do emotions mean to you!?A definition…Positive or negative feeling (affect) states that involve a pattern of cognitive, physiological, & behavioural reactions to events…that have relevance to important goals or motivesSome Defining Features of EmotionFour features common to all emotions1.Emotions are responses to eliciting stimuli2.Emotions result from cognitive appraisalof the stimuli3.Bodies respond physiologicallyto stimuli4.Emotions include behavioural tendencies, including expressive behaviour and instrumental behaviourSchachter & Singer Theory of EmotionNot as simple a processas it might at first seem….The Adaptive Value of Emotion??1.Directs our attention to important stimuli/events -Emergency Arousal System2.Adaptive value beyond simple arousal:Negative emotions•Narrow attention- increased physiological activationPositive emotions •Broaden thinking- exploration & skill learning 3.Important to communications- Influence others’ behaviour toward use.g. infant crying, maternal fear, mother-child affect sharing, adult communications??
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2Emotional DevelopmentEmotional development involves the emergence of:•Emotion expression•The regulation of emotions•Recognition of emotion in othersBasic or Primary Emotions• Anger• Disgust• Fear• Joy• Sadness• Surprise• InterestEmergence of the Basic EmotionsAccording to researcher Carroll Izard..•At birth:Startle (sudden noises, movements)Distress (in response to pain)Disgust (bitter tastes) •2-3 months: Reliable display of Anger, Interest, Surprise and Sadness•6-8 months:Fear and, then, Shyness• Innate• UniversalThe Evolution of Emotions in Early LifeHow Are Emotions Studied in Such Young Children??•Detailed coding schemes based on detailed positioning of and movements of lips, eyelids, eyebrows, forehead, etc), e.g.,Maximally Discriminative Facial MovementMaximally Discriminative Facial Movement Coding Scheme (MAX, Carroll Izard)Facial Affect Coding System (FACS; Paul Ekman)• Coding of individual muscles in the faceBright eyesCheeks liftedMouth forms a smile