1WelcomePsych 2410Professor Greg MoranLecture 2Monday, November 23, 2009The Development of Emotion, Temperament, and Self within the Context of the Attachment RelationshipChapter 11Emotional Development, Temperament and Attachment Attachment in InfancyIts Nature, Origins, andDevelopmental Consequences-The First Relationship -A Platform for Emotional Development and the Emergence of SelfOrigins of the Study of AttachmentMary Ainsworth and John BowlbyA Video ClipJohn Bowlby &A Revolution in Thinking About The Roots of The First RelationshipThe mid-20thCentury A very different time for parent’s and infants…
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2The Roots of Human Attachment•ImprintingBiologically primed bond between parent and offspringLong term social consequences - mate preference•Some form of a bond common in mammals•Critical to survival and reproductive success•Special features of human attachment…Food Not Enough - Contact ComfortHarry Harlow•Freud and others held that food was primary to relationshipDrive reduction and the “Cupboard Theory”Paralleled in learning accounts•Contact comfort more important than nourishment in fostering attachmentRecent Research Developments…Williams &Bargh, Science, 2008“Warm hands – Warm Heart”•A recent study: Experiencing physical warmth actually promotes Interpersonal WarmthRecent observation (fMRI) that same area of brain – insula – actually involved in processing both physical temperature and interpersonal warmth (trust) informationIced vs hot coffee alters judgment of another person – only asked to hold for a few minutes!Hot vs cold pad influences likelihood to give gift…John Bowlby & Attachment Theory•Relationship is primary, not secondary to other drives or needsChildren do not develop on their own, they only develop within relationshipsWinnacott: “There is no such thing as a baby!!”Social interactions in first year have long term impact on personality•Evolutionary roots - ProtectionAnd apprenticeship???•Mother and infant “biologically prepared” to form attachment relationshipWhat are Attachments??•Close emotional bond or tie of child to caregiver•The first relationshipDevelops in infancy•Results in proximity and contact between parent and child•Evolutionary function is protectionDevelopmental vs evolutionary function?•Child uses parent as Safe Haven and as a Secure Base•Attachments are discriminating•Attachments are only one part of the parent child relationship•Healthy attachment predicts healthy social development •Attachments are important from “the cradle to the grave”The Attachment relationshipInternal Future RelationshipsAttachmentRelationshipWorking Model of Attachment?