Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Motivation the persistence of...

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Chapter 10 Motivation- the persistence of behaviour Motivation- and internal process that activates, guides and maintains behaviour Theories of motivation Drive theory o A theory suggesting that behaviour is pushed due to biological needs o When people are dissatisfied with their biological needs they push to rebalance the states called homeostasis and reduce the unpleasant states o Actions to satisfy these needs to be repeated. o People tend to increase not decrease various drives Arousal theory o Theory suggesting that people seek optimal levels of arousal no minimal levels o Measure soft arousal include heart rate, muscle tension, and brain activity o Levels of arousal differ due to activates- higher in sports o Difficult to judge what levels are optimal from person to person and from task to tasks Expectancy theory o Suggest that our goals and expectancies are the reason for our motivation o In this theory people are not pushed by inner urges but by incentives and desired outcomes Ex. Going to the gym to get ripped Goal- setting theory o Suggests that motivation can be enhanced by setting step by step performance targets o Performance usually better if individual is given goals Maslow’s hierarchy of needs Deficiency needs o Psychological- water, food, oxygen, sleep o Safety needs- feeling safe and secure o Social needs- having friends, loved appreciated, social relationships Esteem needs- self respect, approval from others and success Cognitive needs- need to know understand and satisfy curisotiy Aesthetic needs- need for beauty and order Self- actualization- becoming everything one is capable of being Hunger and Eating Hunger motivation – the motivation to consume food o Takes precedence over everything
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o Levels of glucose, protein and liquids regulate hunger o Hunger is influenced by sight and smell and taste of food Regulation of eating People spend money on weight loss programs Two important motives for slimness o Desire of attraction o Desire to be healthy Obesity is linked to high blood pressure, arthritis and diabetes Reason for being overweight o Genetically people might have a low metabolism and a gene which craves sweets o Overweight people have become classically conditioned to eat o They also may have been observationally conditioned to eat o Overweight people may eat more under stress o “” May respond strongly so eating cues Disorders include anorexia and bulimia Sexual Motivation Motivation to engage in sexual activity In most species other than humans sexual hormones affect activation effects; sexual behaviour doesn’t take place with low frequency or obscene of sexual hormones Humans- when sexually attracted to another person, chemical substances related
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Chapter 10 - Chapter 10 Motivation the persistence of...

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