Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Personality individuals unique and...

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Chapter 12 Personality- individuals unique and relatively stable patterns of behaviour, thoughts and feelings The Psychoanalytical Approach Freud’s Theory of Personality The human mind has three levels of consciousness o Conscious- holds are current available thoughts o Pre conscious- memories that can be brought to mind o Unconscious- ideas or memories that have been repressed due to anxiety purposes o Goal of psychoanalysis is to bring the repressed info to consciousness Freud proposed that personality had three parts o Id- unconscious, primmmitive innate urges, pleasure principle, no attention to possible consequences o Ego –reason part of personality, keeps the id in check. Reality principle is when external consequences are considered in regulation of impulses o Super ego- our conscience, permits gratification of the id as if it were morally appropriate. Anxiety is experienced when unacceptable impulses get close to consciousness and close to the control limits of the ego. The ego may utilize one of several different defence mechanisms. o One mechanism channels unacceptable impulses ego socially acceptable action. Called sublimation o 2 nd how a person behaves in a way that is directly counter to the threatening impulse. Called reaction formation o Regression(acting like a child), rationalization(socially acceptable reasons..Cake), displacement, projection (sexually attracted to neighbour, perceive neigher as attraced to u), and repression are other defence mechanisms There is an innate sequence of stages which human being passes. These are known as psychosexual stages of development o At each stage, pleasure is focused on a different body region o . The concepts of libido and fixation are key to understanding these psychosexual stages The initial life force that energizes the id is the libido. o Fixation occurs if an excessive amount of energy is left at one stage of development. o Fixation can result in psychological disorders
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Freud believed that events in the first few years of life determined adult personality. o We pass through a series of psychosexual stages that reflect the id’s focus on a port of the body to satisfy pleasure o During oral stage, pleasure is sought through the mouth. o During the anal stage, the id focuses on elimination. o At about age four, we enter the phallic stage during which the genitals are the primary sources of pleasure. o Freud’s ideas of what occur then, in terms of personality, is probably one of the most controversial aspects of his theory. Phallic stage o We presumably fantasize about relations with the opposite sex parent. o Freud called this the Oedipal complex of males and the Electra complex for females o Boys fear castration o Girls fear loss of love o Both genders, fears are resolved easier by identifying with the same-sex parent.
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