Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Their...

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Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders: Their Nature and causes Changing Conceptions of Psychological Disorders Ancient world: Of Demons and Humours At different times, over the centuries, psychological disorders were seen as coming primarily from supernatural causes such as being possessed by demons or rarely as having natural causes Greeks believes that disorders were due to brain damages, hereditary issues and the imbalance of our humours, the four fluids which shaped out behaviour Romans said that disease was of natural causes The middle ages and the renaissance The biological/medical approach views psychological disorders as diseases. Prior to this conceptualization, patients were often shackled to walls and treated inhumanly. Phillipes Pinl was a director of a major hospital in France and treated these people like patients and improved their conditions Other pysicians began to follow and results were that abnormal behaviour was a result of mental illness The emphasises in psychology today is less on the diseases but more on its potential and roots Medical perspective - disorders have a biological basis and should treated as diseases Psychiatry- a branch of psychology, which diagnoses and treats persons with diseases. The Psychodynamic perspective Freud proposed a psyodynamic perspective of psychological disorders He said anxiety occurs when the ego is overwhelmed the demands of the id The ego strives to maintain a balance between the impulses of the id and the restrictions of the ego Freud’s suggested that thoughts or impulses played a role in abnormal behaviour The modern Psychological Approach (recognizing the roots of abnormal behaviour) Psychological perspective states that disorders are better understood though studying processes such as learning, perception and cognition It also states that disorders also occur due biological factors, psychological factors (early life experiences) and sociocultural factors (cultural views) to environmental factors and hereditary factors Identyfinying Psychological Disorders The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual do Mental disorders is a manual widely used for diagnosing psychological disorder
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The manual includes diagnostic sysmptoms, associated features, psychical examination signs and etc. It classifies disorders along five axis o The major disorders themselves o Personality disorders and mental retardation o General medical conditions relative to disorder o Psychosocial and environmental problems o Global assessment of current functioning In this latest version of the DSM psychologists have a great input This version is based on empirical evidence and considers the role of cultural factors One drawback is that it does not provide an explanation for abnormal behaviour This is done intentionally however Some psychologists say this limits the DSM’s usefulness Focus more on common disorders not on all disorders
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This note was uploaded on 12/20/2009 for the course PSYCH 1000 taught by Professor Atkinson during the Spring '09 term at UWO.

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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Their...

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