FINAL EXAM NOTES

FINAL EXAM NOTES - FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 1 Philosophy...

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FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 1 Philosophy and Science: The Dual Roots of Psychology From philosophy came two ideas o Empiricism- knowledge gained through observation o Rationalism- knowledge gained through logic and reasoning Physiology- the branch of biology that studies the functions of organisms Johannes Muller- how signals were conducted through nerves within the body Herman Helmholtz- findings of how receptors of eyes an ears receive sensations of outside world Gustav Fechner- Demonstrated that hidden mental events could be measured These advances led to the idea that science should be used as the basis of studying human behaviour Structuralism, Functionalism and Behaviourism Wundt believed that psychology should study consciousness-what goes on in on in our minds- Structuralism He centred his research on analyzing sensations and feelings largely through the method of introspecting- what individuals describe as going on in their mind William James who said that the focus should be more on the functions of the consciousness rather the structure soon challenged structuralism. Functionalism was strongly influenced by Darwin’s natural selection. James studied the understanding of the functions of consciousnesses and how it helps humans cope with the changing and challenging world. Led to focus on topics such as child development and educational practices Both structuralism and functionalism fell to the development of behaviourism- the belief that psychologists should only study what can be observed; overt behaviour. Watson said internal events such as thoughts, images, feelings are immeasurable As technology increased the once immeasurable events were being measured with new tools Things such as brain activity, blood pressure and heart rate were measured Cognitive Revolution- a tremendous stage of interest within psychology in the tasks of studying mental events or cognitive processes As a result of the cognitive revolution psychologists begin define psych. As the science of human behaviour and cognitive processes. o Behaviour- any observable action or reaction by a living organism o Cognitive processes- every aspect of human life
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Modern Psychology Evolutionary psychology- A branch of psychology that studies the adaptive problems humans have faced over the course of evolution and the behavioural mechanisms that have evolved in the response to these environmental pressures. Three Grand Issues o Stability vs. change o Nature vs. nurture o Rationality vs. irrationality Major Perspectives of Modern Psychology o Behavioural- focus on the overt behaviour o Cognitive- focus on cognitive processes such as memory, thought, and reasoning o Biological- focuses on the biological events that underlie behaviour o Socio-cultural- focuses on social behaviour due to cultural factors o Psychodynamic- focuses on personality and the role of unconscious process on behaviour o Evolutionary- focuses on the role of inherited tendencies in aspects of
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FINAL EXAM NOTES - FINAL EXAM NOTES Chapter 1 Philosophy...

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