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Psychology Textbook Notes

Psychology Textbook Notes - Psychology Textbook Notes...

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Psychology Textbook Notes Chapter 3 Sensation and Perception The real world as we experience it is constructed from information gathered by our senses. Vision, hearing, smell, taste, and touch are these sensory systems (senses) Two key concepts when dealing with the information transmitted by our senses: Sensation: It is the input about the physical world provided by our sensory receptors. This means it is concerned with the relationship with various forms of sensory stimulation electromagnetism, sound waves, pressure. And how these inputs are registered by our sense organs (meaning eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and skin). Perception: The process through which we select, organize, and interpret input from our sensory receptors. This means it deals with identifying the processes through which we interpret and organize information from our senses to produce our conscious experience of objects and objects relationships. The processes that are involved in our view of the world around us. Sensation: The Raw Materials of Understanding Sensory Receptors: Cells specialized for the task of transduction Converting physical energy (light and sound) into neural impulses. They are located in the ears, eyes, nose, tongue and elsewhere. They contribute to converting this physical energy intp signals our nervous system can understand. Transduction The translation of a physical energy into electrical signals by specialized receptor cells (sensory receptors). A process which the physical properties of stimuli are converted into neural signals that are transmitted to our brain by sensory nerves. There are two critical concepts when dealing with the conversion of physical energy into neural signals: Sensory threshold and sensory adaptation. Sensory Threshold Our sensory systems can detect even small amounts of stimulation. But we cannot detect all available information in the environment Such as low frequencies of noise, some smells and tastes and our \ ability to see is restricted to narrow wavelengths. Coren,Ward, and Enns (1999) of the University of British Columbia the range of stimuli that we and other species can detect seems to be designated in a way that maximizes survival potential. Absolute Thresholds The smallest amount of stimulus that we can detect 50 percent of the time. This absolute threshold of a person is found by using a variety of procedures called psychophysical A series of tests are done to determine at what level of stimulus of something will a person detect 50% of the time. When this is found it is the absolute
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threshold. Complications Our detection of stimuli varies and is unpredictable. Our sensitivity to stimuli changes from moment to moment. One of the reasons why absolute threshold is defined as detection 50% of the
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Psychology Textbook Notes - Psychology Textbook Notes...

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