Chapter 2-Sociological Investigation

Chapter 2-Sociological Investigation - Chapter 2-...

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Chapter 2- Sociological Investigation The Basics of Sociological Investigation Two basic requirements id’d underlying soc. investigation: 1. Look at world through soc. perspective 2. Be curious and ask questions -how do we recognize info as being true? Science as One Form of Truth -4 ways of id’ing truth are: faith, recognition of expertise, agreement through consensus, and science. -science : the basis of soc. investigation, and defined as a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation. -science is based on empirical evidence : evidence identified through our senses. Common Sense vs. Scientific Evidence -6 contradicting “truths” in the text Ex) accuracy of statement that most poor ppl ignore opportunities to work is seriously questioned but empirical evidence that majority of poor Canadians are children, single- parent moms and the aged. Science: Basic Elements and Limitations Concepts, Variables & Measurement -concept : mental construct the represents part of the world, in a simplified form -variable : concept whose values change from case to case (ex. social class varies w/ some ppl being id’d as middle-class and others working-class, etc.) -measurement : process of determining value or a variable in a specific case (ex. soc. class might be measured by income, education, occupation or all 3) -operationalizing a variable - specifies exactly what’s to be measured in assigning a value to a variable besides operationalization> 2 other variables of measuring variables is important: 1. reliability : quality of consistency in measurement 2. validity : quality of measuring precisely what one intends to measure Relationships Among Variables -cause and effect relationships : one variable (independent) causes a change or effect relationships in another variable (dependent)
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-variables may be correlated (2 or more variables are related or change together in some way), but doesn’t necessarily mean one causes changes in the others. -spurious correlation
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Chapter 2-Sociological Investigation - Chapter 2-...

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