Chapter 7-Organizations

Chapter 7-Organizations - Chapter 7 Groups and Organization...

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Chapter 7 Groups and Organization Social Groups- refers to two or more people who identify and interact with one another. Groups, Categories and Crowds Category- people who have some status in common- ex. Homeowner, single mothers Crowd- a temporary cluster of people who may or may not interact. Ex,. Students Primary groups- Charles Cooley says a primary group is a small social group that whose members share personal and enduring relationships.Ex. spends time together. He classified these groups as primary because we experice there groups first. Secondary groups- a large impersonal group pursues specific interests and activities. Usually involve weak emotional ties and lack loyalty. Group Leadership Two leadership roles o Instrumental leadership- refers to group leadership and emphasizes the completion of tasks. Members look at instrumental leaders to get shit done. Punish for poor work. Garner respect. o Expressive leadership- focuses on collective well being. Take less of an interest in completion of goals but a more moral pathway minimizing tension and conflict. Keep primary ties. Garner affection. Three Leadership types Authoritarian- aggressive, takes charge and demands compliance Democratic- more expressive focus allowing everyone to participate in a decision. Lasses-Faire- (leave it alone)- allows the group to function on its own Asch’s Research Found that one third of all subjects conformed to those answering incorrectly Most would rather compromise their own judgment to avoid feeling uncomfortable Milgrams Research In this experiment milgrams had a student and teacher who thought he was a subject. The teacher was to ask questions and accordingly to the whether the answer was correct or not apply a charge of 60v and increase it for every incorrect answer. What the teacher didn’t know that he was the one being studied. His findings suggest that people are likely to follow not only the instructions of authority figures but those of ordinary individuals. Janis’ Research Groupthink- the tendency of group members to conform by adopting a narrow view of some issue.
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Reference Groups A group that serves a precedent for evaluation and decisions Preparing for a job interview u look at a professional business man. Stouffer’s Research Stouffer conducted research on the morale and attitudes of soldiers in WW2 in order investigate the dynamics of reference groups. Stouffer found what appeared to be a paradox: Soldiers in branches with higher promotion rates were more pessimistic about their own chances of being promoted that soldiers in branches with lower rates of promotion. Soldiers with higher rates felt deprived.
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Chapter 7-Organizations - Chapter 7 Groups and Organization...

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