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January 17-izo - The Aztecs in 1492 5-10M within the Empire...

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January 17, 2008 The Aztecs – in 1492: 5-10M within the Empire agriculturally: large surpluses sophisticated labour intensive techniques built city on lake – very advanced – 'Venice' theocracy: king – divine ruler famous for its blood-sacrifice very religious – a lot of temples tributary Empire: conquering and exacting tribute, but not assimilating feared and dispised very militaristically inclined Tenochtitlan – 300 000 city (2x as big as Spain ) The Maya – In 1492 2M people in decline by contact – classic period had already passed very different than the Aztecs – Europeans found a fallen Empire, decentralized culture group Guatemala, Honduras, and El Salvador Militarized, but less centralized than teh Aztecs – unity had collapsed - more a city state great astronomers and mathematical achievements (more so than other developed cities at the time) – the Mayan calendar eg. 5123 (dates far back) Empire collapsed by 1000AD – long before European contact culture persisted (just decentralized) – still exists today, majoirty of Guatemala (60-66% are Mayan decent, and 22 lanuages) linguistic diversity – emphasis on culture (socia norms, agricultural practice) Tikal in Norhtern Guatemala (ruins werent found until 20 th Century) – forest regrew after the collapse Palenque (Southern Mexico) Copan – Northern Honduras The Incas In 1492 10-20M along the Andes – along 2000miles like the Aztecs a theocracy – intertwine of church and state - at their peak around time of Contact sophisticated land, irrigation, road system, collect taxes across vast space, force labour Tributary Empire – have more goal of dominating cultures and assimilating imposed taxes and forced labour for public works Unlike Aztecs: integrative: imposing culture, language, and religion – wanted unified was only one lanugage in the Incan realm - Quechau extraordinary social organization technological feats – massive buildings, irrigation, and terraing projects potatoe was the food stable
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cultural change – linguistic diversity less than in Mesoamerica Present-day Brazil In 1492 – estimates 1-11M (probably 2.5-5M)
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