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February 7 - February 7 2008 Recall last day 1810-1828...

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February 7, 2008 Recall: last day… - 1810-1828 – Spanish hold on its American Empire disintegrates (only keeps Cuba and PR) - Key Sparks: o Us Revolution (1776) o French Revolution (1789) o Rise of Napoleon o Elite divisions Peninsulares – allegiance to Crown Ciollos – seeking independence - Independence Wars – some fighting for more noble ideals, but in the end, the primary result is Criollos deposing Peninsulares - Doesn’t lead to redistribution, or equality - End to slavery, but not radically equal society - Legacy of militarism and authoritarianism – caudillos o Take large tracks of land 3 Major Fronts: - Mexico 1811 – Hidalgo – priest announces there will be challenge to Spanish rules – sparks war for independence and challenging exploitation o 1821 – gets independence o Spanish tries hardest to keep Mexico - New Granada o Modern day Colombia, Ecuador, part of Brazil and Venezuela o Bolivar – top military leader, and political leader o Campaigning and exiled in Haiti - Rio de la Plata
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o Vice Royalty, Argentina and Chile, Bolivia o Was a Spanish backwater – not as much Spanish interest - Mexico and Unites Provinces of Central America – enter into a federation but 1839 dissolve - Guatemala contemplating coming part of Mexico - South America does not become united states, instead independent nations - New nations end up fighting - Simon Bolivar o Dream of a US of South America o Hero across South America, statues etc. o The regional caudillos resisting vision – the military political class o Fragmentation – fed subsequent wars over territory o 1830 “South American is ungovernable” – Bolivar o Also predicted “The US seems destined to torment the Continent in the name of freedom” - Today attempts for more unification with Bolivarian Revolution in Venezuela (Chavez) - “It is unavoidable that the remainder of the continent should be ours” – John Quincy Adams - Monroe Doctrine 1823 – warns European powers to stay out of Hemisphere - American idea of manifest destiny Brazil - later independence - slowly evolves without war - actual independence 1889 - 1763: capital from Salvador to Rio – signals shift away from
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