Stille and Krumme letters - 2V R‘QCM: 1 “is {Dr-ll?...

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Unformatted text preview: 2V R‘QCM: 1 “is {Dr-ll? Clank/L) nqg>©00meti Umu. Press. The Stille and Krumme Family When Wilhelm Stille left his family farm in Lengerich in the PruSSian Province of Westphalia in i833, emigration from northwestern Germany had just begun. But the wave of emigrants swelled rapidly and sopln carried other members of his family along: in I8’36 his nephew, t e following year his sister Wilhelniine and her fiance Wilhelm Kru'mme from the neighboring village of Lienen, and. ten years later a distant relative, Ernst Stille. All in all, at least eleven Stilles and twelve Krummles left these villages before 1871.1 And they were by no means the olnhy emigrants from this and other towns in the county ofTecklenbunrg. e entire area, which includes the neighboring districts of Osnabruck and Minden, shows the highest rate of emigration in Germany during the 18305 and i84os. Throughout this period, about one percent of the population ofthe Osnabriick region left every year. The offiaal figureslin Tecklenburg are somewhat below this, but only because’many peop e, such as Wilhelm Stille, emigrated illegally.2 This was qu1te easy to do, since Lengerich and Lienen were located on the border. The offiaals in Hanover shed few tears over the recruits who escaped the PruSSIans, and the shippers of Bremen passed up no business opportunities on that account. A i k db The demographic development ofthis region was strongly mar e I y waves of migration. Tecklenburg, which had been the most rapidly 'Schumann (i974). n; Hunschc (n.d-). 147—48- ' - f 2Kamphoefner (1987), ia—ié; Hunsehe ([98]). 145. Accordingly, more than one seventh o the population of Lienen emigrated in the first ten years. 62 ' May 30, i820, in Meppel, Holland permanently (Gladen [i970]. z7—7i, “9-49; Kamphoefner [I987], 40—5i). STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 63 growing county in the Munsterland in the period following the Napo— leonic Wars, experienced a downturn around 1834; stagnation was fol- lowed by a loss of population which continued for several decades. Between 1843 and i858 the number ofinhabitants declined by 6 percent, and in Lengerich as much as 10 percent. The population ofLienen and its two neighboring villages, Ladbergen and Westerkappeln, was lower at the founding of the German empire in i871 than at the end of the Napoleonic era. It was not until 1927 that the population of Lienen regained the level it had attained in 1813.3 This loss ofpopulation can be traced above all to the decline in cottage linen production. Seasonal work in Holland, where the eldest Stille brother had settled in 1820, also became less profitable. The people who suffered most from this development belonged to the rural lower class, the so-called Heuerleute [tenant farmers], who depended most heavily on sources ofincome outside farming. They owned neither house not land and had to rent a cottage and a few acres ofland from a peasant farmer or Kolon. Combining migrant work in Holland, the production of home- grown flax, and occasional work for the owner of the large farmstead, the tenant farmers attempted to keep their heads above water. As the population increased, survival became increasingly difficult. The situa- tion grew even more critical when the common lands belonging to the villages were divided up in the 18205 (without taking the tenant farmers into account), when conditions for the seasonal workers in Holland escape from this predicament was thus to go abroad. Large farmsteads were bequeathed to one heir undivided (in Tecklenburg usually to the youngest son), but this, too, offered no protection against the pressures ofa growing population.‘ Wilhelm and Wilhelmina Stille’s father did own a full farmstead, but they were not his heirs. They could have stayed on the family farm only as unmarried hands, as did several of their other siblings. Learning a skilled trade and working in the village might also have been an alterna- tive, at least theoretically, but the decline in the linen industry meant that opportunities here were also few and far between. In their village, thus, there was no viable alternative to the life ofa tenant farmer. Marriages such as the one between the farmer’s daughter, Wilhemina, and the tenant farmer's son, Wilhelm Krumme, were not regarded as appropriate and 3Reelrers/Schulz (1952). 45—50; Hunsche (I983), i45. ‘Johann Rudolph Stille. born in ' . Further entries in the ev. KB Meppel suggest he settled there 64 FARMERS acceptable, a fact that no doubt influenced their decision to emigrate as well. Family members who left the farmstead did receive a considerable lump—sum settlement from the heirs, but it was easier to begin a new life with this money in America than it was at home. Farm owners emigrated only very rarely, their children more often. The more typical emigrants from Tecklenburg and other areas in northwest Germany were tenant farmers or their children, like Ernst Stille, who left in I846, and Wilhelm Krumme, as well as the majority oftheir other friends mentioned in the letters.5 Although the phenomena of chain migration and strong cohesion within groups from the same part of the country can be found every— where in the new world, these tendencies are especially evident in the Stille/Krumme correspondence, and among the emigrants from Teck— lenburg in general. The towns of Ladbergen and Westerkappeln could claim daughter villages in rural Ohio and Missouri, respectively, and these also attracted many countrymen from the neighboring towns of Lengerich and Lienen as well. But immigrants from Tecklenburg also maintained “outposts” in all of the larger cities along the major traffic routes—New Orleans, Baltimore, Wheeling, Louisville, and above all St. Louis and Cincinnati.6 No other series of letters contains so many references to relatives, friends, and acquaintances. The extent to which accommodations, jobs, and even marriage partners were arranged by this network of countrymen is truly striking. Both Ernst Stille and Wilhelm Krumme (after the death of Wilhelmina Stille) found marriage partners from Tecklenburg. Wilhelm Stille’s choice ofa Swiss girl, how- ever, was influenced by his location: in Monroe County, Ohio, where Stille settled, there were almost as many immigrants from Switzerland as from Germany, and in Switzerland Township where he lived, even more. His brother—in-law Wilhelm Krumme remained on the other side of the Ohio River near Wheeling, Virginia (after 1863 West Virginia). Ger— man settlers there made up about one—seventh of the population in 1860, but it was 1880 before they were able to support a daily German—lan- guage newspaper, although there had been a short—lived weekly publica- tion as early as 1850. The nearby village ofTriadelphia could count only a few Germans among its two hundred inhabitants, but in 1850 three other families from Lienen lived in Krumme’s immediate neighborhood. Cin- cinnati, where Wilhelm Krumme found his second wife and where Ernst 5Background information on the case ofthe Stille family is provided by Schumann (1979); tax assessments are given by Leesch (1974), 196; for a discussion ofthe occupations ofemigrants see Kamphoefner (1987). 40-51. °Fleischhauer (1970), 23—34; Kamphoefner (1987), 73—78, 85—99. Swiss; MC 1850: Ohio Co., Va; USC 1850.1, 399; Am :Lipusand cpl: irfi 1843. Wilhelm mentions more than 0 assetso t e arm. Details on Krumme are ' i i " I ‘ given In Muller I 6 corresponding files in StA MS; #1094 may be the Ernst Stilldnsieri STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 6S Stille settled, was an important transshipment center on the Ohio River Ofall the cities in America, Cincinnati was second only to Milwaukee in terms ofits percentage ofGerman inhabitants. In 1850 almost 30 ercent of the population had been born in Germany, many of thempin the northwestern region. Naturally, the German population affected the cultural life of the city. The German—language weekly that was founded in .836 had become a daily newspaper as early as 1838. By 1860 there were three daily papers for the 45,000 German immigrants as well as one Catholic and several Protestant weeklies and one jewish publication 7 At the time of Stille's arrival, Wheeling, with its five thousand resi— dents,.was about the same size as the parishes of Ladbergen or Lienen including outlying farms, but the latter then suffered subsequent losses. whereas Wheeling tripled in size in the following thirty years—yet fell behind other comparable American cities. Cincinnati’s growth was much more dynamic, particularly between 1830 and 1850, when its population more than quadrupled, reaching 115,000 by mid-century. What practical experience did the Stilles and Krummes bring along tc‘ help them adapt to this strange and rapidly changing environment? Unless they had served in the army, it is doubtful that they were familiar With any German cities larger than Miinster or Osnabriick both of which were about 25 miles away and had populations under twent thousand. Although he was already 32 when he emigrated Wilheer Stille had clearly spent a long time, and perhaps all of his life on the family farm. In the list ofemigrants, the 28—year—old Wilhelm Krumme is referred to as a smith, but there is no evidence that he ever worked this trade in America. Ernst Stille wasjust a farmhand, emigrated at the age of 24, and had hardly more than the money for his crossing. He came from a family that had to “slave away terribly" and could hardly even pay for the postage for their letters.8 The handwriting in these letters too hard] suggests that the writers were particularly sophisticated. A keen busines: Sieszin, however, is as ev1dent as the bad spelling and traces of local Wilhelm Stille, for example, undertook a speculative business trip on a flatboat, shipping a load of agricultural products 1,500 miles down the Ohio and’ Mississippi rivers to New Orleans. And after Wilhelm 7 . In 1860 6 percent of the population of Monroe Co., Ohio, were Germans and 4 percent dt/leon (1965). 433—59. 645—46. and in 183]; Mfinster reached twenty nee that his "sweat" had contributed to —.66), #422, as well as in the tioned here. aOsnabrt’ick had a population of only eleven thous \ 66 FARMERS Krumme had bought his own farm, he rented it out so as not to pass up the high wages being paid for work on public construction projects. When buying his land, he considered not only the fertility ofthe soil but also its convenient access to markets. Ernst Stille worked in subtropical New Orleans in the winter and in Cincinnati in the summer, and he saved on his travel costs by working on the river boat that plied between the two cities. All ofthis had less to do with the previous experience ofthese people than with the fact that they were now living in an environment in which they could, and in fact had to, develop their gifts and talents, As soon as she arrived, Wilhelmine Stille noted that her brother Wilhelm, who had emigrated four years earlier “is so much smarter than he was in Germany." Ofcourse the new start was easier for people who emigrated with money or were supported by their relatives at home. The case of Wilhelm Stille gives one the impression that his appetite grew with the eating. After he had bought land, he needed a house; after the house, a barn; after the barn, farm machinery. The money he took along amounted to almost 300 talers; during the next 25 years he received again as much from home. The tenant farmer's son Krumme was worse off; Kolon Stille had to pitch in to outfit him with sturdy shoes for the journey. But his fiancee Wilhelmina was endowed with over 300 talers worth of money and goods (some of which was paid after her death) which Krumme then inherited.9 Ernst Stille and many of the other emigrants from Teckleriburg who appear in the letters had to make do with far less. Though in this series we have to deal with five different writers, their characterization need not be overly long or complicated, since four of them write quite similarly. Wilhelm Stille shows the results of undoubt— edly good schooling. His spelling is acceptable, his punctuation good, his sentences clear and well constructed. His sister Wilhelmina has very similar writing, though she seems to have less practice than her brother. Wilhelm Krumme, by contrast, appears slightly superior to Wilhelm Stille, for in addition to good mechanics, he expresses himself more precisely. Caroline Krumme’s writing is not too different, either, though she combines a fine vocabu- lary with utter disdain for punctuation. All ofthe above reveal a certain influence of Low German, both in spelling and in syntax. Outstanding for this group of Krummes and Stilles is Ernst Stille, whose writing is so accomplished that one is tempted to assume that he received the equivalent ofa good grammar school education. 9Not all of the money transfers are mentioned in the letters, but the heir to the farmstead, Eberhard Stille, kept records of them all (see Schumann |I979|). STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 67 Wilhelm Stille S ri 8 Dear parents, brothers and sisters, l P “8 l 34] [fl can still call you that, and you are all still alive, I want to let you know. that I am as healthy as I've almost never been before, I’d like to hope it’s the same With you and I’m not in the position to tell any ofmy “lativcs to come here except Rudolph,l0 if he were here, he'd do all right. He could learn Cabinetmaking and earn '/2 dollar from the first day on, also learn to read and write English and also good clothes but then he'd have to stay till he’s 21, by that time he’d be earning money and after that he could earn one dollar and even i'/2 dollars a day but youn bo like that have to have someone give bond so they don't run away tgwazid the end, now he could do well with my boss's brother, l told him about it already, he said it was a shame l didn't bring him along, he wanted to ive him ajob right now. lfhe wants to risk it and come here write me a legtter and he can best come here when the families whom Wiitenbrok“ wrote to come over, and he must also bring at least [5 talers with him across the ocean otherwise he can’t get to here, travel in this country costs ' lot, and Heinrich“Z hasn’t got enough money to come here and bu anything, ifyou can't bring i,2oo talers you have a tough time but therli it can all work out, but even someone like that still has to work iliere‘s no other way. I haven't made a lot up to now, here at the mill [ onl made dollars the first month, after that 6'/2 dollars with free board and 37:125th 5 after that I went to the distillery and get 10 dollars a month but that’ll over soon. He [his boss] wants to rent out the distillery and inaybe sell the mill. My boss is ajoiner and his brother is a carpenter now the both want me to work for them, I don’t know yet ifl'll do that and die mill isn't sold yet and the distillery isn’t rented yet, and ifl can get work in a gainer: that s the best, that's a good Profeq'on, if you know what you're g y u can earn 300 talers a year. That 5 better than working at the wlietstone, where what you earn in the summer you use up again in the winter. Here there‘are enough people running around who’ve been here :lped sstilirdgn’t :ave '5 talers to their name, what they earn in With . I y p in t e Winter, but that won thappen to me, I left . 44 pisto es and when I come back to you I think I'll brin ioo pistoles back, then you’d have something to rely on, and whethergl will In . . . He is probably referring to his nephew Rudolph Stille. born in IBIS (hereafter designated by it). the illegitimate so fh‘ ‘ ' ‘ . . ism (Muller [I964_62Jf’#4|2 hdarie Elisabeth. Rudolph did, in fact, emigrate (illegally) in "Probably Ernst Heinrich Wittenbroclt b ‘ _ I . l 8 With his wife and seven children between the age seelzalso Hunsche [i983], 25 i). ‘ Probably his brother Heinrich Stille (b. i789). 9), Kolon from Lienen, who emigrated in 1833 5 four and nineteen (Miiller | i964—66l, #6304; ()8 FARMERS come again I don't know myself, and ifl’d learned a trade like Buddmeier I'd never want to see Germany again, all winter long he made I taler I silbergrosclien a day and wliat'll happen to those who don't know a trade I can’t imagine, for they can't save enough to start a farm. [ . . . ] The Americans want to see a lot of work done in a day, and anyone who thinks he can get by easy shouldn't come here. The Americans are strong and quick, they can do more in one day than the Germans, but they don't want to work every day. Here around me some 80 families have settled, and almost all of them have a hard time keeping themselves clotth and having enough to live on, that's why it's best if Heinrich doesn't come here and tries to get married there, and if he or Teljohan wants to buy something I'd say they should buy something small and not get into debt, then they'll be ruined fast even if they don't think so at first and Rudolph he can still come in two years' time and in that time I can write you more than today. And ifl can't earn 10 dollars a month here with board then maybe I’ll go to Neuorliens toward winter, to South Amer- ica, that’s another 2,100 miles farther than where I am today, that's where you can earn the most money and here the least, but I came here together with Wittenbrok and other Germans looking for a good chance to buy something. Rider Schilling Schmitte and Delbriige from Lienen they stayed in Baltemore, they may earn more than I do, and Stapenhorst wrote and told me what they had written they also wanted to come here but they all didn't have enough money to come here, when l was in Baltemore l went to see Pastor Stapenhorst's widow's son,13 he said Sporleder wasn't there any more, where he was and where he is now he didn't know. [9 ll.: had written him, no answer] Now don't any of you worry about me, ifl can't stay here any longer then I can go back again as easily as I came here. So enjoy your work and the time won't seem so long. Also please watch out for dear mother that she doesn't do any work that's hard and anytime she doesn't have any money one of you should give her one taler, that will help out for a long time and won't hurt you much, don‘t any ofyou drink liquor, it‘s a very bad thing. [41].: closing; signature] When you write to me again then take the letter to Otten so it can be put in Wittenbrok's letter. And write and tell me about everything and as soon as you can and don't gossip about this letter, and copy out the other letter and send it to sexton Plage in lbbenbi’iren [3 ll.: instructions] for I had to swear to the sexton and many other people that they would hear from me. “Florenz Stapenhorst, son of: pastor's widow. emigrated from Lengerich as one ofthe first in I812. Conrad W. Stapenhorst, perhaps a relative. traveled with Stille in 1833 (Miiller [I964- 66], #6, #63; and Schumann [i979|). STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 69 And write a note to the stage drivers in Osnabrijk, tell them that I wrote and that even if they were my own brothers then I couldn't tell them they should come here or stay there. some like it here and so don’t. and tell them I'm grateful that they helped me get to Bremen :11; put the letter in Benat’s house and address it to the stage drivers Brune or Wolf. [9 ".2 advice on emigration: bad for be k shoemakers] 6 “PC”. good for wooden insurance on your house. Pauhetten Peint [Powhatan Point, Ohio], February 16th 18 6' Dear parents. brothers and Sisters, l 3 , see below] [8 ll.: was sick for two months, now recovered Year’s l was at the steam mill, where I ha for a merchant, V4 hour from m again, plus board and washing, work much, we don’t have any house, but two horses to ride tha a bit at the Pathaus, and enjoy Germany. Dear parents, someo And up until New d my firstjob, but now I work y old boss, there l get Io dollars a month and that's all grand, and I don’t have to land besides a small garden behind the t l have to take care ofand watch out for a contented life such as l never had in ne wanted to know if we have C er churches here, there are enoug man h here and it’s a , great pleasure for us to hear the gospel preached as well as in Germany, but I wouldn't tell any use of that, except young people, for it's costs quite a lot and when you first co I , , me to this country you don t know the language and face an uphill climb that's why many people take a long time to get over their trip But when they ve been here for a while and get a feel for freedom, and see the 00d crops growmg here and all without manure, and that the land is so ea: to work, then they think differently, then they feel sorry for their friei'ids whoare still in Germany, and spending all day from early mornin to late evening working to pay their taxes, and having to eat such bad foid not even meat every day, and here even three times a day and all sori f gushes that I can’t write about very well. You also wrote me that in: o;::h}e:;;n:at\ili: bought part of the, Shulte place but if someone comes my mun" :n so muchdmoney- he ll do much better, that I can write to wa b y en in goo (fOl’lSClcn-CC. Families that come over here and nt to uy land should bring all kinds oftools along but no axes, they're hard to travel as a family and it 7o FARMERS not even worth picking up compared to the American ones. If you have clothes bring them along but if you bring the money for them it's almost as good, I don’t see any difference in the prices, except for linen, that's almost three times as expensive here, a family would be wise to bring along a piece oflinen and of flannel along with their own clothes. One thing I’ll tell you, I talked to a friend ofmine who's been here over a year already, he told me the people over there say what an awful country this is, people don't even have any milk to put in their coffee, that’s true and that's because they drink coffee here without milk because the cows don't come home all the time, and the cows suckle their calves, like over there sheep suckle the lambs, and when the cows have calves they don't come home then they stay in the woods, and the women are too lazy to go and get them if they don't have a horse and saddle, there's nothing they'd rather do than ride around a bit and go to the stores and buy all kinds of things that's their favorite pastime, and to sleep late in the morning, then the husband has to make the fire, and the men here are like this, what they earn one day they have to drink up the next. [6 11.: details about food] But I'll tell you the most unpleasant thing as far as I know that‘s when you don't know the language and you’re not with your friends and the Americans want to talk to the Germans. [35 ll.: instructions about the trip to Bremen, equipment and behavior at sea; wages; closing] I remain your / true son / Wi Stille 1836 [2 ll.: address] Pauhatten l’eint, October 18th [1837; see below] Dear parents, brothers and sisters, Divine Providence and love of you leads me to send news ofus to you; and my news is that I am now quite well, have little work and am still earning well, my wage has improved I get 12% talers a month, and free board and washing. Besides I can write that Wilhelmina and Wilhelm Krumme arrived in good spirits, they came to me to the Kaptin on August 19th” and are both quite healthy, they're both working at a German tavern not 10 paces from my house. Wilhelmina gets 1 taler a week and Wilhelm Krummc gets 9 talers a month. But I must tell you the sad news about Rudolph'5 that is sure to hurt you. He was overcome by an illness which is not easy to cure. He had dysentery, and at the end dysentery with blood and it caused him great pain and anguish, although “Wilhelmina Stille and Wilhelm Krumme left Lengerich on May 23, 1837 (see Schumann). Miiller ([964—66), #41:, lists Krummc as a blacksmith. “Kaptin” is Captina Creek, which flows into the Ohio at Powhatan Point. '5Sec n. to above. and the pastor gave an excellent spe highly ofhim, he went to church t know the preacher as soon as he e _ , in a warm room in the w' ' I mter and sun in the summer, and all so easy, “0' m the details about wages; he was soon al write anymore this time. I remain / your devoted son / W Stille / [837. [10 ll.: greetings, address] Howe got smallpox on the sh ' d . . Bakemore and died there, ‘P 3" was taken to the hospital in Wilhelmina Stille me, one person says to me says the same thing, riding after church, me and the two Wilhelms and one 72 FARMERS here than with you, that's because you can live in peace over here and the people aren't so false. And Friederich, we thank you for the address, clear sister Elisabeth don't grieve for your son that he died, he's sure to be much better off now than anyone with even the best place in America. And as for your coming here it’s no good, there are people who have three thousand talers and are sorry that they came here, the trip cost so much that I didn't believe it myself, the Americans aren’t ashamed to overcharge the Germans, dear sister Schallothe,“ I can't say you should come here, because you're too old to be a servant and buying land isn’t like what everyone says, now one other thing for you, dear brother Eeberadt, please send me a woollen coat, blue or brown but a nice one like the rich folks in Lengerich wear, give my best to Heinerichjager, and his wife can sew the coat for me, she knows best how it should be, and I must tell you that everyone should bring silver and gold along and not get a draft for it for people get cheated with drafts, and then I want to tell you something about the trip we were on the water for 52 days, it’s not very pleasant and it's far worse for those with children. [6 ll.: details] We wanted to buy some land but we don't have enough money, one third has to be paid at once, ifyou would be so kind as to send me 100 talers more I would be very pleased. Now I hope that you do as I ask, you mustn’t think we don't like it in service, that we want to be our own masters, we still want to work for two years to earn the rest. [3 ll.: greetings] 50 write me as soon as you can what’s happened at home and who else wants to go to America, [4 ll.: wages, as in Wilhelm’s ofOctober 18, 1837; signature] Wilhemina Stille Krumme [Winter 1838—39] Dearly beloved mother, brothers and sisters, [4 “.2 received first letter, but not second] The third one we received on August 24th and read that our father was dead'7 which upset us because we didn’t expect his departure but one must be content for he had quite a long life, I have to tell you that Krumme left his first boss in April, and went to Adolp Oberhelman, he gave him i5 talers a month and now he's given him 2 miles ofrocks to pound'8 now he’s got it, since he’s working he earns a lot and that's how he wanted to have it, for work is a real pleasure for him. Here now he had to go into boarding with someone "’It is unclear which of the four Still: sisters was named Charlotte; none was so baptized. Elisabeth's three sisters were 43, 36. and 32 years old, I7Their father died on january l3, i838. at the age offli. "Still: worked on the National Road, which led from the east coast through Triadelphia to Wheeling. STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 73 6156, that came to 2 talers every week and th V _ I en he had to a 2 grosc hen for each piece ofwashing and here everything has topbzwasglinccl every week, so Qberhelman told him to get married for he would 6' lose anything on it. 2 talers would easily do for food for the two of ililst And also because his work clothes were all torn and the Americans do ' want to mend the old clothes of the Germans n t German pastor named Langforst, born in Unnau that's four h am] we ate and drank at his house, from there ‘we drove t OXls away which is 1 hour from there, there he married us and the text 0 hmndcr psalm 2 verse 1 I. Serve the Lord with fear, and rejoice withvi]C ablliwas and when We came back we had another meal and a good ti renll *mg. took him home again and all for free, but we gave the ast me tl m he ll.:food prices, higher because ofthe drought] So we waliit :3: 2|th as. [3 we ve bought 80 acres ofland and our brother has too the C you that one anzthcr bult his i: so much better it cost 400 talers arid oquajrtidlglerlso we pm 200 ta ers o it since we did ' , paid for all of his, we were supposedntblleyeifle iiigrebuliuwobr bmther much that they gave us time untiljuly 4th, ifwe don’t pa itivillgl;gcd l0 if]? fezgve re azking you, dear mother and brothers in {he name :ff’h: gong", evenTFittiSE-Tiu‘lilll 83126” “if "" myth” “6 “'63” made for me because it costs too musllill’iersydgi hictftllitefrizidlbidltlifrs" cpztsciilscilothwe hid to buy feathers for the beds, a pound costs [6 gute , an go" have to hazy: 5::gh: a coth] . ] and then all the other things that , i Wit rie erich Krumme sin ‘ ‘ . . ce we think h coming to stay With us you want ' C Is 0 , ed to know how bi l ' ' we live, there are two sto g t w my ls Where rekeepers who trade i ' sorts ofthings, cloth and d n carpenter 5 [00's. all ry goods hardware I h all sorts of pots and l l p ows’ s ovels' axe and . pans, flour and a little of ever k’ mer : . . y ind of Merdesu'en ch indise]. A steam mill, a tavern and also a few more houses they're all in ' Stcamabrow along the water. that 5 called the Rewe [river] that's where the oats come and load everything in and out and when to get on or offthe steamboat the pcoPlc want ‘ t have to h ' - f , I got ere, the lace is 2 tom Welingen [Wheeling] and Piethsborg is another 4: miles bzelyziicd We ' lastl]:ge;dl also \Jant to tell. you that my brother Wilhelm left his boss OngOd; HOwent own the river on a boat that was loaded with all kinds was his. .andutr, potatoes, string beans, cabbage, onions, apples, halfofit Neuoums Wh.who.others had a quarter of it each. The city is called the ca ’ 1c is 15 hundred miles away it's in South America ther y n tgrow such things but none ofthem made much with it becaus: 74 FARMERS last year there was too much of everything. And when he got back he started to work on his land, he's built himself a house and has already cleared 3 acres of farmland. [l0 ll.: his plans to marry a Swiss girl didn’t work out] We live 3 hours away from Welingen right on the road and are very happy for l have a happy marriage and live in peace. Peace nour— ishes, discord consumes. The Otthermans want to stay here this winter” because the water is so low they can't go any farther inland. I must also let you know that old Witthenbrock is dead and the eldest daughter is married?" [16 ll.: correspondence, greetings from W. Krumme] Friederich Krumme has to pay for half ofthe postage. [about I839] Dearly beloved mother, brothers and sisters, [6 ll.: received letter, is happy and healthy] My brother Wilhelm is also quite well, he is eleven German hours away from us, he's working in a distillery and earns 18 talers a month in the clear, I think he’ll be getting married next fall ifit's God's will, for he’s built a nice house on his place and cleared 15 acres and he can plant a lot there. We live near Oberhel- mann's, three hours from Weelingen, Wilhelm still works for Oberhel- mann for he is a good man. Everything here costs a lot. [5 ll.: prices] Wilhelm took the letters to my brother himself he told him he couldn’t write this time for it was Saturday when Wilhelm was there and on Sunday he had to be a godfather for a child three hours away from there, the Germans all have their children baptized but the Americans don't know anything about that, ifit's a boy the father gives it the name, and if a girl, then the mother, there are such strange beliefs here, when people are grown up the pastor puts them completely under water then they believe they are all clean, they can never sin again, and some think that once they’ve had communion they can’t do anything evil. [7 11.: financial affairs; greetings; closing] You three have to pay for the postage together. Dear mother please send me some thread. [30 II: from Wilhelm Krumme, probably at the same time as the previous letter: mostly about financial affairs; also signed by Wilhelmina] (probably Fall 1839] Dearly beloved mother, brothers and sisters, [4 ll.: correspondence] We also want to let you know that I gave birth on _]uly l3th to a beautiful baby boy who amazes everyone. His name is “’johann W. Ottermann (b. 18H) emigrated with his sister and widowed mother in 1838. He later settled in Missouri (see Muller “964—661. #564; Kamphoefner [1982], I88). 20Wittenbrock was about fifty years old when he died; his daughter Catharina Elisabeth was twenty at the time. See n. It above. STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY woluldn t want to live in Germany a suc co .ntentment as a person coul own mmd, Ifyou don’t really want ave to fouow your to then it' [ . . . ] [39 11.: from Wilhelm Krumme: fmanciaslliifltitfirrstIhat you say there. gain sincellive heres h ' ' d wish but you h 0 applly and m Wilhelm Stille Dear mother, bmthers and Sisters Traiedelphia December 25th, 1840 “4 ll.: suffers from arthritis] ' here doing that, but but not me because I was lucky of foodstuffs. [8 ll.: details] But that year all the speculat ors lost mone enough to have so man y. y different kinds 21A d‘ ( (' at that “me CCOI “lg IO M [850 tha ‘ l W y I ' a rim K CPS IS 2} cars Old ' CSU' "ll y C Illegitimate daughter of ilhelminas SISICY Milli 50',th . b l’ [C 22p! [h ‘ I 0 [1 on M2 ll 76 FARMERS area since they have to buy all their food and there are too many sick— nesses. ' 3. I want to tell you that I didn't have any land yet, and I felt weak and tired of making the crooked straight for other people and wasn’t all that content, and then I thought I’d risk buying myselfsome land and then get married, so I'd finally have a home for myselfbefore I turn gray, and I did both. The land I bought is quite good, but my wife is much better. She is 25% years old, pretty, easygoing, friendly, hard—working and virtuous, and we live in such pleasant harmony that I can’t even tell you how happy and content. She came with her family 1 year ago from Switzerland, and my father—in-Iaw lives 3 miles away from us that is one German hour, right on the Ohio River, his place is worth 2,000 talers and he has money besides, and there are 9 children, she is the oldest and did the most work, and he promised her the most, and what she received you can read as follows, an old bed, that was the long and short of it, and I had a wedding. Onjuly 4th, 1839, and a young son on March 26th, 1840. All very fine. 4. l was supposed to write whether it would be good for Ernst to come here or not, I and Wilmena and Krumme think he should come here, if he can't get work right off then he can come to me I'll give him work for one year or 2 years, the first year I'll give him 50 talers ifl can’t give it to him right away then I’ll give him interest on it and my wife will also mend his clothes. 5. The rumor is out that my sister Eliesabeth is uncertain ifshe should come here or not, but we strongly advise stay there stay there. They know what they have and don't know what they can get again. 6. You wanted to know how such poor families here get along, they rent a room or a chamber and then they work for a daily wage in the rain, snow and cold wind and when such people are lucky, in 4 to 6 years they can maybe earn enough to buy a 40 acre piece of bush, then they have to work 5 years more before they get anything done and that is hard work, a weak man can’t get through it. [7 ll.: 7. brother Friedrich’s health; 8. thanks for money sent—was desperately needed] 9. I read the settlement contract and as far as I'm concerned it’s done in quite a brotherly manner but you don't need to be alarmed, you can still get a paunch with it, as big as Obermeier in Alstiegen near lbbenbiiren [7 ".2 details] 10. [f Friederich Krumme comes over here please send me as much money as you can since I really need it since I have 160 talers debts, which you maybe don’t believe but it’s the sad truth, [6 11.: was sick for three months] And my land cost me 385 talers, my house 118 talers! My house is all made of wood with English windows and l have a Flohr made of STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 77 Pine upstairs and down, [. . . and I had 10 acres of] me 70 talers, 7 talers an acre 21 and Cleared. that co“ nd when it was done I And 4 months after my we ‘ there all right, but nothing inside. Then I went to and bought another 95'/2 talers worth of things .1. Then with God’s help we moved in and worked hard and all the livestock we had that was [- ----] a eat up tojuly rst then I bought a cow for 18 talers and also a calfand , 2 oxen for , wnh the roots for 5 talers. 44 talers and a plow that 5 good No I7. At the very end I have the ".2 questions about their well-being; pnwlegc to give you a" my be“ [4 closing] Wilhelmina K rumme [probably early [84] or 1842] ers, are well which makes us very -law23 which isjust as we would ; all are well] These are bad 78 FARMERS payer, namely Adolp Oberhelnian, he went down the Rewe to buy land since there wasn't any more work on the roads which hurts us too, in terms of money we’re not any richer now but we have more in the household, that is we bought ourselves namely a nice cow and we've raised our own heifer and a horse and a foal that's 2 years old and a cart to _ haul wood and stones, and a bedstead and a table, the cow we bought cheap for 13 talers, the people went down the Rewe and couldn't take it along. [25 ll.: further details, have rented out land; advice to Ernst, in case he comes; thanks for money and thread; closing; signature; greetings from Wilhelm Krumme] [probably early 1842] Dear mother, brothers and sisters, [40 ll.: correspondence; religious admonitions and reflections; all are well, but chances to make money are poor] Brother Wilhelm is still in good health but his wife is poorly, she gave birth to a baby boy on july 22nd, and the first one died three months ago which grieved him very much, otherwise he had a good year all ofhis crops turned out well. He is pleased that you want to send him the money. [7 “.2 details; Wilhelm's Child is ill] I also want you to know that we’re still living on the same place where we’ve always been, we've rented out our land for 2 years, since for one year we couldn't rent it out so well, since it gets better every year, but when the 2 years are up we'll go and live there ourselves, God willing. [12 ll.: closing; signature; advice to Ernst; greetings] Traidelphia, May 30th, 1842 [10 I]. by Wilhelm Stille: all are healthy; asks for money] [Wilhelm Kmmme continues:] Dear mother, brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law parents, brothers and sisters, The reason I must write you a sad letter, which I cannot conceal from you, is that my dear and your dear Willemina fell sick on February 14th. [16 ll.: details] And the Lord God who called her into this life and gave her to me took her away on April aist at midnight when she passed away in my arms, and she died ofconsumption and dropsy. [5 “.2 details] The time had come for her to leave these earthly tabernacles for the merciful God had prepared her a better home. [15 ll.: religious reflections] At first I sometimes wished that ifit were God's will then all three ofus should lie in one coffin, but it was not God’s will, but I still miss her all the time. [2 STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 79 ll.: God’s Will] For I can tell you'that it was almost 6 years a o s’ swore our love to one another and since that time it never reign l[iicc w'e this moment. .Even if] can no longer see her with my e esg m “l: um” are always With her, and I will never forget her sinZe [wey‘ 0nghhrs quarrels, instead we lived in peace and harmony as a ma ‘nieivcr ad should, believe you me. [15 ll.: religious thoughts 3— e lme coupk are in gOOd health] , y ar—o d son and he I also want to tell you the circumstances ofthe burial that h ' h' Country many people are buried like animals, but I had tlie rea tlire m thls house Since he is my neighbor and a good preacher at ihatcbmtht '6 English: the text you can find injob 19, verses 25 to 27 Dear Ebmh cdIs my brother Wilhelm wants to have his proper baptismicertificat:rpl:aste , get it and send it when you write again but I . , ease w have to stop . p me agam 500", here I I am and remain your brother—in-law Wilhelm Krumme Dear brother-imlaw Wilhelm Sehulte [Pmbably eafly [843] You mustn t mind my calling you this, since the times have brought it do anything else so we got married 0 , ’ n December 29th, and on th :iedsltzppedbby limstEBierbaum in Cincineti where we had a smallatiaci’g our rot er rnst and Friederike and th 5 h " bergen“ who were all a c c roars from Lad— . greeable. And I hope that n f objections, that means all of ' one 0 you has any you, for I hope she Will havea o d It ' me that means peace and quiet and food and drink if thE goddess: grants me health. [4 ll.: closing, greetings, signature] r [Karolina Schulte Kmmme continues:] Dear parents, brothers and sisters, l als ' maide'ohyyzgt todwrite adfew words about my change, namely that I left , an entere matrimon on D b ' a“ be qUite com . y ecem er 29th I think you will cut, like Ernst and F ' d ' ' happier than I I rie erike were, since I am also ever was in Germany and ev ‘ I er could ha ' hope, greetings; Signature] ve been. [[2 "U [10 ll.: from Wilhelm K ' rumme to his b th —‘ - ' spondence; advice on emigration; addresrs([ er m [aw Eberhard. corre- 6 . [3 ll.. undated fragment from Wilhelm Krumme, perhaps written at the 80 FARMERS same time as the previous letter; weather, correspondence; address; asks about relatives; greetings; signature] Traidelpfia, January 27th, 184]3] Dearly beloved mother, brothers—in-law and sisters-in—law, I'm writing to let you know that l and my littleJohan, with God's help and succor, have been quite well; but the two of us have had a hard time, first I had to send little Johan away to strangers for almost seven months and that cost me 4 talers a month, and the whole time I lived by myself, cooked and baked for myself, I can tell you that was a tough year for me. [6 ll.: but God knows what is best] My earnings have been very low I . . . ] I’ve been set back almost 200 talers; the people are quite good here but they don't do anything for free. [3 ll.: hopes it will be better now] And in November I went down the Reewe 400 miles to Cincineti to visit my countrymen I met up with a lot from our area but I was there for three weeks to get to know people and then I sought and found my heart's desire, ifyou ask what was that then I have to answer that it was Caroline Schulte, we got married on December 27th [sir], I hope none of you has anything against it, for I can tell you she's very good for me and my little Johan, that is the greatest joy that l have and it will certainly be for you too, for love is the best, it makes you happy. [5 ll.: wishes peace and quiet for himself] The times are very bad for the people have no money but thank God enough food and drink for everything turned out well, here I must stop, I am and remain your brother—in—Iaw Wilhelm Krumme. Now 1 must turn to my dear parents, brothers and sisters, [I5 ll.: asks about family in Germany and sister in St. Louis] Finally, dear father, you wanted an answer from me about my brother Rudolph ifl think it would be good for him to come here. ldon‘t want to write much about that this time, for things are bad here now and people have no money but we're all waiting for better times but they're a long time in coming. The farmers don’t want to pay more than 5 talers a month and the factories are closed, they're all waiting for better times, that‘s why I don't know what I should write you have to decide for yourselfif you really want to come, then come. [5 ll.: greetings, closing, signature] [4] ll.: probably January 23, I843, from Wilhelm Stille: primarily about money matters] Wilhelm Srille Manroh Counti Pauhatten Peint Ohio. [probablyJanuary i, 1844] Dear m., b. , and 5., I received your letter oprril 4th, [843, and in gricfl daughter. Now I’ll stop money together also from Briinsttrup [29H.:January n, 1844, . New Year’s wishes; cons signature] Dear mother, brothers and si and how tell you 5 bush whe sugar production] 3 . z“Eberhard Stllle's wife died STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 81 read It sogitephthit l almoljtbknow it by heart, and that Eberhardt's 105525 was 50 gr , a can we elieve since ou ' . r brother-in—law W K ’ . rum acted likke he wasn t the same man anymore and when my eldest son dim: . U c [didn't .now what to do and that was far less ofa sorrow. [3 ll ‘reli i0 conso .EIOI'IS] We are all well, and I hope the same for you we have % us . en [0 Cat. ut I still have debts of 55 talers and l have to borrow morfsi ty nce I'd like to have a windmill 2" it takes , me forever whe ' 80 to 100 Bussel [bushel] in the basket n l have to wmnow very hot here and very cold what with all the work. If you don’t do it you'll still be my dear brother Eberhardt l he II ("le [In c a n f . . na SWCI IUIII ("I even If Bllllklllan Comes, anothCl thin . g Eberhardt if] h were sowing the seeds ofhate, ranting and raving, it WOUl§::)du1tll(liat you as ifthere s a great gulf fixed between us. [ . . . ] Here I must ClOStCOQZIg Lemadm your brother Wilhelm and ask that none of you drink a lot f ran y, and write back faster this time and not a ' 0 to hear about each and every one. I almost forgot one thing I, on July 10th my wife gave birth to a wri mg smce my arm is t ' D d ’ . s artmg to hurt. ear Fberhardt you mustnt take it amiss that you have to get the Wilhelm Krumme continues on the same page: olation for Eberhard; hymn verses; closing [postmark2July 14 18 . 46] sters, I am happy that I am in Am ' correspondence; health] You wanted to know how mzzllfaland Emch gram l harvested, and all in German measures, that I will re{pin can clearly understand. [st I bought 100 scheffelsaat of ere are lots ofdifferent kinds oftrees. [[7 ll.: details- maple D [5 ll.: on March u, 18 . 43. at the a mg machine. 8: or“. I: refers to a grain-clean 32 FARMERS 2nd I’ll tell you what crops and how much I received in 1844. 190 to 200 scheffels [bushels] wheat. I80 scheffels oats, I20 sclieffels potatoes, 80 scheffels corn, and a few odds and ends that aren't listed here. I also want to let you know that people here have started to grow buckwheat, that gives a good yield. [12 ll.: one harvests one hundred times the amount of seed; 3rd Rudolph Brinkmaii visited him] 4th I'll tell you about the kind of land and about fertilizing, the land here is so different that there’s nothing like it, and also not flat. on the hills, except on the Ohio River. The soil seems to me to be alight Kleli [clay] when it rains a lot it’s soon too wet to plow and when the weather is dry it becomes hard and packed, and you have to fertilize here too, if you want to have it like over there. When a piece of land isn't any good anymore then clover is planted and cut one time and then you let the clover grow again to I to 1V: feet and then plow it under, then you can count on it to be good enough for 3 to 4 years, wheat and oats here are also cut at l to l'/2 feet above the ground, that’s just like half fertilized, 5th 1’“ tell you what kind and how many animals I have, 2 milk cows, 2 beefcows, 2 plow oxen, 2 young oxen and a saddle horse, which doesn't do much other work, but the people who live a long way from the Ohio River they have a lot of livestock, they make money on them, and the people near the river stick to crops. 1 don't have any meadow. [3 ll.: details] 6 I can tell you that this year nothing grew very well, but I would be ashamed to complain since every week I read in the newspapers about Holland, Engeland, RuBland etc. [io 11.: harvest] 1 can be content, I have no debts and am well set with wagons, plows etc. and my taxes hardly come to 5 dollars. Why shouldn’t I be content, and thank the Gracious Father. We have 2 children, myjohannes is 4V2 years old and my Maria 2V2. And my wife is expecting again and everybody healthy as l proved earlier, and we have enough to live well. But we’ve had to work pretty hard up to now what with the Klahren [clearing] and building. [91I.: almost finished now; details about location] [Wilhelm Krumme continuesz] Dear brothers—in-law and sisters—in—law [2| “.1 pious reflections on the death of his mother—in-law on june 2, 1845‘, illness, recovery of his son johann] I thank the Lord for that, he turned 7 years old on the i3th ofthis month, he now goes to the English school every day which costs 8 talers a year, he can already read pretty well, and I hope he’ll take a shine to learning so he won't have to do any heavy work, since he is weak in stature just like his dear mother Wil— helmina but big for his age, I and Caroline have been quite healthy, thank God, and two children have also been born in the time since we married. namely a daughter whose name is Wilhelmina and the youngest is a boy STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 83 his name is Wilhelm Theodor and both are quite well and we're still living at the same place where we used to live on the road d like to Sell the land that I have, I’ve already sold 40 acres {0 » an I would still have as much as Wilhelm but I want to sell that to {275 talers and like the area, there are too many hills and it’s not a 0 Since we don t children, that is for them to learn something. As soon as I to buy something else where the land isn’t so high and wlivc SC]! we want is a bit better, Since where Wilhelm lives the market is bad 3? Le market poor, so they must work hard and still can‘t make much He:1 ,t, C land is over there, here you can buy land anyfime, ifYoujust ha he It s not like “.2 a good year, priecS, wages] Vet e money. [7 But there is one thing to fear, that we'll have w heating uP arid it's just like it was in the Year of 18 Brabant and France that’s the case here now with] MaCkZIkO. we elected a different president last yea Tacksas and the two are fighting each other27 and no war, they ve already had two battles and it went ver about 60 men and Ma'ckziko 15,100. 1 ho they'll give up soon [6 II 'con ' . .. gratulations on the r ' ongluly 23, 1845] findsinally, dear Eberhardt, a {cesingictszfjrhard ease C so goo an write me how thin I ‘ . gs stand b t you intend to do With what you decide we should h:\::el3Ynolilisl: are all mortal men so that we never know how lon w 'II 'II please be so good and write it, and don‘t tak g c S“ be asks about emigration address] good place to bring up ar, and it's already 3 with Holland and us and Tecksas and r and he took over w we have to fight a . y well for us we lost pe that ifthey don't get any help nd what now we here, so eithard [l4ll' ' . . .. greetin 5, plans of brothers and Sisters; closing, signatuEe' Ernst Stille a. C. . .. . Dearest friends and relatives, mcmau’ May 20th lposmflrk 1847] I can’t neglect sending a short letter fro ' ‘ the Fatherland. We all arri m a foreign country to you m When we left you we werytefd hergn America hale and hearty as we were , rom remen to Neuorlian ' . 5 ll.. sea voyage] It was November 2 m 2 months. we landed after a safe trip28 d ’ i [21 n at 4 o clock in the afternoon when we went right into town and met a few 27 ‘ Thc'II":]ieclllepublic‘of Texas, independent since l8 dCd or er conflicts With Mexico which arose are war on May i2, i846. 28Emst Stille, aged 24. time from the county of my certainty. It is also u 3.6, was annexed by the United States in I845, in consequence prompted the Americans to made the crossing on the shi Tecklenburg (NOPL, Roll 25')’. nclear whether Eberhard Stille Alena with I67 other passengers; many He cannot be otherwise identified with was his real uncle or ifthe term is used g4 FARMERS friends: Homann who used to rent from Erpenbeck, W. Tostrik and many from Lienen. The first thing one of them said was: what on earth are you doing here, why didn’t you stay with the Stilles. This was not a pleasant thing to hear but it didn't scare me because I already knew about that in Germany. When we went back to the ship in the evening where we had a place to stay for one more night. Wilhelmiene Henschen came with her husband johan Munders because they'd heard that a ship had arrived from Germany and wanted to see if any friends were on it and were not a little pleased when they saw F. and Wilhelm Henschen. ‘]. Munders lives from his teamster trade, he has 8 mules and since he needed 2 stableboys he took his two brothers—in—law on as drivers and gave them 12 dollars a month. He kept B. Brinkmann on as a servant for 5 dollars a month, and I worked for three weeks as a day laborer and earned ‘/2 dollar and board. my work was loading dirt. [2 ll.: details] When tliisjob was over I hired myselfout to another carter and my wage was 15 dollars a month, my work was hauling cotton with 2 mules, here good luck seemed to come easily. [8 ll.: but then he had an accident] Then I needed the care ofa doctor but I didn't want to pay the costs, since doctors and druggists in Neuorliens skin you alive so I had myselfput in the hospital where all the service and medical care is free, since that’s what the 3 talers sickpay are used for that every passenger has to pay. When I could get along on my own again and could walk pretty well [3 “.2 but still unfit for work] having to pay '/2 dollar for board 'annoyed me and I set off to a trip to visit Uncle Wilhelm. The trip from Neuorliens to Cincinati took 12 days and cost 2‘/2 talers. I stayed there 2 days and visited all the friends I could find, then I got back on the steamboat to Uncle Wilhelm's, this trip took 4 days and cost I'/2 talers. Wilhelm was still living with his wife and children, happy and healthy, and I stayed with him for [4 days I also wanted to go to see W. Krumme but because ofthe hard frost the steamboats couldn’t run and so I didn't get that far, but I hear that he is well off. also little johannes is quite healthy. [ . . . ] On the first of February I left Wilhelm and traveled back to Cinciniiti when I got here there was little work and wage in the city since it was the worst time of the whole year that there is, but I was lucky enough to get ajob with Fr. Lutterbeck from Ladbergen29 I didn't earn more than 6 talers a month and myjob was hauling bricks. At the beginning of April all the brick- makers started to work again, many Germans work this trade and earn a good wage and I set to work at this too and earn I dollar a day, ofthat l have to pay 7 dollars a month for board and washing, 1 work for Kuk from Brochterbeck, l have my board with Ernst Fiegenbaum from 2"Friedrich Lutterbeclt (52) (hereafter used to designate age), farmhand from Ladbergcn. emigrated to Ohio in 1837 (Miiller [1964-66], #503). STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 85 Ladbergen who works with me.30 Every brickmaker has 2 horses and 6 men each one has a differentjob we make 8,500 a day and it's hard w k but when we start at 4 o’clock in the mornin or 0-dock, if I can stay healthy I will keep wo healthy and can stand the work, it pays the bes might like to know how conditiOns are in gen grants here but l can't write too very much ab here, The only people who are really happy he ,0 hard work in Germany and with toil and g earn their daily bread, when people like that c have any money, th rking here since if you're t. [ . . . [Now some ofyou eral for the German immi- out that since it's so varied re are those who were used reat pains could hardly even ome here, even ifthey don't ey can manage, they rent a room and the husband his dollar a day and so he can live well and happil dren. But a lot ofpeople come over here who wer: but were enticed to leave their fatherland by boastful rs from their friends or children and thought they n America this deceives a lot of ' I i, . peo le, smce h can they do here, ifthey stay in the City they can only ear: their breiivd :: hard and unaccustomed labor, if they want to live in the countr d don t have enough money to buy a piece ofland that is cleared andyhan house then they have to settle in the wild bush and have to we k as a hard to clear the trees out of the way so they can sow and lar t vt‘iry people‘who are healthy, strong and hard-working do pretty well Fl ’ in Cmcmatl I know a lot ofpeople who have made it by workin hiardflle’l:n Ernst Lots for example he does very well he also owns a brickg ardJ; l d earns good money, I know a lot of other people who lead lila and carefree lives, R. Saatkamp who used to rent from Drees32 andpliyKam kamp are also here and are doing quite well. F. K. works with me ahtd earns 30 dollars a month. H ‘ he is healthy and h ’ i e sends along his best regards to you and that well offin Germany and imprudent lette could become rich i “There is an Er of: brickyard. lilllOl‘Ig the y P l u C 0 y 0 -‘ 9 W 56 bI’ICk ald () Cl H) h l) III ' 8 8 I S In I C SI SS dIICCl f f I 4 4 there IS one nst Fredenbaum listed in the Cl) Cincinnati I849—50 as a laborer at the address 32 Rudolph Saatkamp emigrated in 1845 as a 28— Scrich. with his wife, whose maid year-old tenant farmer from Ringel Len— ‘I9I4l . en name was Drees. and three children (Miiller [mm—66] 86 rARMi-tns burgher in Lengerich. [14 “.2 advice for those who want to emigrate; greetings; address; closingI Cincina'tiJuly 10th, 1848 Dearly beloved friends and relatives, [73 ll.: repetition ofthe letter ofMay 20, 1847, presumed lost, up to his job in the brickyard] On Oct. 10th last fall work ended and since I once again had no way to make money I went back down the Rewwe to Neuorleans, not as a passenger but as a worker, on the trip I earned '/2 dollar a day and board, from N. I went 43 miles farther downstream and got work in a sugar house [refinery] and earned 20 dollars a month and board, I worked there 4 months, and afterwards went'up the Rewwe again, this trip I was third cook on a steamboat, and earned a half dollar daily again. At the beginning oprril I came back here and the next day I started working for Ernst Lots in the brickyard, since I promised him before I left that I'd be back around April lst since he'd start up again and work for him this summer. I now earn 3r dollars a month that’s about the best you can do here, since thisjob only suits those who like to work hard and also have a firm and healthy body, for the day’s work is a lot we make 8,500 a day and when you work you can never be in the shade, instead you always stand in the bright sun, it's also not the custom that you spend the whole day at it. [24 ".2 working processes in the brickyardl The bricks are sold for 3 ‘/2 dollars per 1,000, they are about 50 such brickyards where in each one 8,500 are made every day all summer long, and they are all used here in the city, so you can imagine how fast this city is building up and expanding, if this would stop then thousands of men would soon be without work, you can see that when in the winter no one can work at this trade because of the snow and ice, then there’s a huge number ofidle people, the main work in the winter is with fat livestock, this is brought in from the country in large herds, on the outer edge ofthe city there are large buildings where about looo a day are slaughtered and cleaned, then they're brought into the city where they are cut up and salted and put in barrels that's how they’re sent from here to other countries, this is a pretty hard and dirty job, that’s why most people would rather do nothing for ‘/4 year than do this, but if you want to put up with this you can earn I to I'/2 dollars a day. I also want to let you know that I got married on the 4th of May of this year, to Heinriette Dickmans, the daughter ofone ofDieckman’s tenants in Leeden, she is 20 years old, left on the same day from Bremerhafen as we went on board but she went via Baltemor, I didn’t know her before, neither in Germany nor here, but I got to know her this spring through her uncle Rudolph STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 87 a bit more than 100 dollars ewood '/2 or 3/4 dollar, food is e With my wife as before, since housing costs me 2V2 dollars a month. Fir cheap here, and it is not as expensive form [took my board with someone else an , there are also enou died about 6 weeks ago. and five children, b [7 ll.: drank himselfto death; left behind u a wife t two sons earn $12 a month at the brickyar d] And couple of years to b childhood I’ve been . us d t ' ' my a“ my “re, you C e o farming, l d rather do that than sta an't start very well unless you have 300 dolly m the ars, you . y as well as one Eb h d [feumburg m 13‘“, Rudol h Es I L I er ar ieckmann rl I964-66l. #5521. 37 year-Old w'dow" “"1 day laborer. ad Cl"lgl atcd In I8]? .9 I 5 he 98} 8 ( 8 0 ‘ (Mulle . I ' 3,lune [I l,6).lnM.l5. Incinnati. Ohio, W. more correctl 38 FARMERS can still buy 80 acres of wild land for 100 dollars, ifyou then build a house and barn that takes 50 dollars a horse or 2 oxen takes almost 50 dollars a few cows and pigs and farm implements 50 dollars, then you have to live for a year before you can harvest then it takes another 3 to 4 years before you earn any money. I hope you will be so kind as to let my other relatives read this letter and read it to your tenants, since they all will want to know how I am and I can’t write to everyone I promised to write to. With best regards to you all, your friend Ernst Stille Cincina'tiJuly 20th, [848 Dearest mother, [4 II.: had not yet written] I didn’t want to write you a letter so you wouldn't have to pay anything. I have been quite well up to this moment and have always earned good money, now that is 3! dollars a month. [3 III: has married] I am sending you 5 talers Prussian money with this messenger, and I hope that you receive it in good health. You may think I could have sent you more money, that's also true, but since I haven’t heard anything from you since I left, I didn’t think it was wise to send a lot, and I also have something else in mind, that is, my dearest wish is to have you here with me, to do my filial duty and to take care of you in your old age, this is also the dearest wish ofmy wife, she too will receive you withjoy, and I am sure that you could live in peace with her and have good days even in your old age. [34 ll.: recommendations for the trip over, travel costs; address; closing; signature] [probably July 20, 1848] Dear Uncle Eberhard, [16 ll.: asks him to advance his mother the travel costs] If all of this comes to naught, then I will have to send the money next summer this means that she will have to come a year later and has to slave away terribly there, or even go knocking at someone else's door, but she could be very useful here, ifshe were here this winter or next spring around the beginning of April, I would take in ID to 12 boarders, which I'd have a good chance to do next summer, I could earn a lot doing that, and then she'd have brought in the money for the trip. [5 ll.: would have sent the money already if he were sure she was coming] If my niece Friederike wants to come over here, that would be a good idea, since it's not hard to imagine what will become of her in Germany, it will be hard for her to marry a good farmer, and if things turn out badly she’ll have to slave STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 3'? December 20th, [18 8 Schwttzerland Taunschipp Manr‘bhI Caunti in Ohio in Amerika cc to send me 3 pipes I would .: be an ' ' g growmg wme grapes; closing; signature' his brother Friedrich should write] 90 FARMERS [Wilhelm Kmmme continuesz] Traidellphia], Dec. 24th, 1848 Dear brotliers—in-law and sisters—in—law, I must tell you a bit about our situation, I am still working on the road where I've been working for i0 years already, I have plenty of work and we’re getting ahead, but it’s hard work, I now have three horses, two to work and one three—year—old that can't work yet, I want to sell one in the spring and I want to stay at my old job for one more year if we stay healthy, and if you want to send Ernst's sons over here to us then do it. I will take as good care of them as I can, for I have a better chance to get them work than brother Wilhelm, if they come it would be best ifthey leave in the spring then they could already earn something in the summer since the summer is the best time to make money I have one man who works for me according to your money he earns i taler 8 gute groschen a day. You wrote me that I should write to you how much money we have received, to tell you the truth I can't say, I believe it was 80 or 90 talers that father gave us to take along, and afterward 50 talers and the cloth for the coat, that’s all I know now I‘ll leave it up to you to do what you think is right. I greet you all and remain your brother-in—law / Wilhelm Krumme. [8 ll.: inquiries about power of attorney, greetings] Wilhelm Stille Schwitzerland Taunschib Manroh Caunthi Ohio January ist, 1850 Dear brothers and sisters, now it's been over a year since I wrote to you and still haven‘t received an answer, I don't know what the problem is. [ . . . ] I was sick for a long time, so bad I didn’t know where I was heading, to be crippled or die. [86 “.2 had severe rheumatism in his hip, the doctor burned it twice with a hot iron; is somewhat recovered but still remains frail; doctor bills; since he was unemployed for almost one year, high costs for day laborers; wife and children were also ill] Now dear b. and s.: it should not surprise you that what with this affliction I would really really like the rest of my inheritance, follow your conscience and send it to me. ] . . . ] Dear brother Friederich, if you can also send me a small sum, after this affliction I’d take it gladly, since you don’t have a family, ifit doesn't work out then you’re still my dear brother. But it certainly would help a little bit to patch up the holes. [[3 ll.: wishes to hear soon; Ernst’s visit: money matters; closing] STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 9] Wilhelm Krumme Traidel hia M . ' 3 Dear brothers—in-law and sisters-in—law P rCh “St, [350 I 1 want to let you know that we are all still healthy thank God d hope. you are-too, further we want to let you know that we wantt an we to ciliCllllletl smce my job here is over and I think that we'll b: "lovttl again if we can get a good buy that will be the safest thin siny an children are growmg thank God,36 first jahn will be it thisgs r' CC cud he s growmg very fast and has a good time since he doesn't h: mg all .anytl‘llflg so‘far, he goes to school every day and he's a good u :6 lio '0 m the. English language since he can handle books fairl 'bt athIS doesn t. know much German. But if the Dear Lord grani’s us h llth 6 want him to learn German since I want him to go to a good schotflasto h: won t need to work so hard like a common day laborer. [15 ll ' confirm Stille 5 letter; closmg; Signature; address] ” 5 Caroline Schulte Krumme Dear brother—in—law and sister-in-law [C1 1858] hI lfeel thfe need to write you a few lines about the money you are :sienumgho sending see clearly from your letter that you are afraid I will p e money Since I have to hear all the time that it’s for joh ’ manila! ats far'as I am concerned you don't need to send anything 322': n a we ve counted on it or are countin on it th ' f f ‘ truth, then we'd have been cheated a Ion timg W at 5 ar mm the more than 200 Prussian talers together bygnextefafio. d e have to get way we stay healthy and the Dear Lord doesn't s :1 an we can do It $00 If then we’ll rely on working with our own h fin us a ton] crop failure, [3 ll.: difficult year, but they'll make it] Andm hand "m on SUCh money. earned with our own hands and not inheritedwY at “he have then we have Johan is in Cincinnati at my brother’s and h .' dou’s onld also know that his mother's gold ring and also Wilhel ' c S 0mg we" he tOOk along linen that was still left I will keep for hiilnstivll’liCh fmm' Germany and the _ ds it also her cloth I never wore smce I had enough clothes myselfiilgi tho h l d'd ' es any money, yes dear brother-in-law I know that I hav ug ' I n t have 0 I _ , e a Sinful soul : sfhort timle to live that 5 why I will take care not to soil my 5211 ew wor dly goods that are not mine and Wilhelm has enough 3"The MC i850: Triadclphia, Ohio Co, Va. (now W. Va. Cromcy hit] with their children john (ii), Willimina (6) )' #26]. his“ William and carom" William T. (5). and Louisa (2). 92 FARMERS right as the father to ask for it while he is still in good health, after all they left Germany 20 years ago and your sister would have been 50 already andjolian will be ofage in 2 years and then he can demand it now you can figure out how much use Wilhelm would have out ofit and remember she was his wife and not his servant and sickly as long as they were married. [6 ll.: exchange rate; asks for a fair hearing] I also want to ask you when you see my sister please tell her about our letter and ifshe still has even a little spark oflove she’ll put a note in with your letter and give her my best, [8 ll.: greetings, closing] [Wilhelm Kriimme continueszl Eberliardt, be so kind and tell my sister that I wanted to write to her but this letter will be too heavy she should be so kind as to write to me I'll gladly pay for the letter. I've forgotten my brother-in—law’s name / Wm Krumme [lo ".2 February I, 1858, by Wilhelm Stille: instructions about filling out a draft] [Wilhelm Krumme continuesz] February ist, i858 Dear brother-in—law and sisters-in—law, [16 ".1 they are well, are visiting Wilhelm Stille; harvest; wine grow— ing] Now I want you to know that since last falljohannes has been with Ernst Schulte in Cincinnati in his Stohr37 and he likes it very much, he goes to school every evening and every day to the store, now he has to learn and that's what he does since he has a good head for learning. [lo 11.: inquiries about neighbors; will send tree seeds] Your brother—in-law, Wm Krumme, [12 ll.: September 1, 1858: receipt from W. Krumme to Eberhard Stille for 162 talers; all claims are thereby settled] Wilhelm Stille [probably written at the same time as Wilhelm Krumme's receipt] [9 ll.: confirms he received the full share ofinheritance] Dear b and sisters and brothers-in—law and sisters-in—Iaw Tell the school masters that they should teach the children when J7Ernst took over the store from his previous employer ca. i845 (see n. 24 above). In the likes he appears fairly regularly in the Cincinnati CDS as a grocer. in 1859 even as wholesaler. In the MC i860: Cincinnati W. 3, #isio, he is listed as owning no real estate but having $6.000 In assets. STILLE AND KRUMME FAMILY 93 someone emigrates something important, if they want to write a letter me state and Caunti [county] must be written in full and right whole inheritances have been lost because ofthat. [9 ll.: details] Here I will close and drink a glass of wine since I'm writing this while making wine. W. Stille Dear sisrer—in—law [Pmbably May 1859] [i2 ll.:' religious condolences on the death ofEberhard Stille on Octo- ber ,4, 1858] Dear sister—in—law, please write again soon about all ofm brothers and sisters, also how many are in America and where they arey maybe I can visit them, also what your children are called by name ditto something about your neighbors especially about Erpcnbek Kittei from Latbergen told me a bit, but not much since he was a preacher—he also died '/2 hour from here, a changed man, his name will live on a long time Forgive me dear sister-in-law that I want you to write so much but you’ll forgive me, ifit's too much for you take on a scribe for the’da another thing, have the school inspector read this letter so the childreili learn to write Latin, since Latin script is good almost all over the world Dear Sister—In-Iaw, love me as I love you. Wilhelm Stillei . my address reads M. W. Stille Pauhatten Point Balmount Counte Ohio / Amereka [Wilhelm Krumme continues:] Traidelphia Dear sister-in—law and children [ii ll.: correspondence; the ‘ l y are well] I haven't seen johan, Wilhelm- cna 5 son, {or 2'/2 years smce he is in Cincinneti which is ' I . 400 miles awa from us, but he is quite healthy, thank God, and is doing well, he earns 3t); talers a month but has to pay for his own board, he is with people who [IIJVC tobacco shops and they push pretty hard, johan writes that they ave me to 120 men working there, and he is a clerk there. [[0 ll.: harvest' inquiries , about Eberhard’s successor' ' reetin s Fare and forget me not i g g ] thee we“ Your brother-in-law William Krumme. 94 FARMERS changed at all. The value of his property had increased in the 1850s from 900 to 1,600 dollars, but the amount of land under cultivation had only increased by five acres to forty acres. Until 1880 his estate remained basically the same. At the age of 78, he still farmed 25 acres of land, helped only by his eldest son, who was “insane” and could neither read not write. His son Theodor lived in the same area, and at the age of29 he already owned a farm of eighty acres, half of which was cultivated, worth $2,500. It was no doubt bought with the help ofhis father. In the second generation, too, the feeling of ethnic solidarity continued to be strong; Theodor’s wife was born in Ohio of German parents.3x At the start, Wilhelm Krumme's chances of success did not appear as good as those of his brother-in-law Wilhelm Stille. Krumme emigrated four years later, received much less financial support from Germany and pounded rocks on road—building projects, whereas Stille worked in a mill and in a store. But Krumme and Stille worked themselves into farming, with obvious success. In the 1860 census Krumme's farm was valued 400 dollars higher than Stille’s. He could afford to send all three of his children, ranging in age from twelve to sixteen, to school. After 1860 Krumme was no longer to be found in Triadelphia.” For his sonjohann, Krumme had wished for something better “I want him to go to a good school so he won’t need to work so hard like a common day laborer" (March 21, 1850). johann's ability to speak English must have been very good indeed, since his employers in the tobacco wholesale business were two American businessmen. Until about 1862 he remained a clerk or salesman with the same company; in 1863 he appears as a foreman. He had married at about the same time and was then listed with a home address instead of as a boarder. In 1866 he appeared for the first time as an agent, 1869 as a traveling agent with his own office address. Evidently this remained his profession and the Cin— cinnati area remained his home; in 1880 he is listed in the census as a traveling salesman. That he was well assimilated is also seen in the fact that his wife Melissa was an American whose parents had been born in the United States. The third generation, johann Krumme's children, were probably fully Americanized. In 1900 one son was a milk merchant in Cincinnati; his wife and son had the distinctly Anglo-American names of Phoebe and Howard. And although the head ofthe family was named William Krumme, he had little in common with his grandfather Wilhelm Krumme.40 38MC 1850: Switzerland Twp. Monroe Co., Ohio, #60; 1860: #149; 1870: #117; 1880: ed. 134. #132. #194; also the local MC A 1850. 1860, 1880. J“MC 1850: Triadelphia. Ohio Co., Va. (W. Va), #263; 1860: #365. “Cincinnati CDs for 1859—79; MC 1880: Cincinnati, Ohio, W. 3, ed. 109, #177; MC 1900: Cincinnati, Ohio, W. 1, e.d. 4. #119. ...
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Stille and Krumme letters - 2V R‘QCM: 1 “is {Dr-ll?...

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