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Unformatted text preview: W. PAYNE ': Journ . 1977, this expert knowledge in a. controlled itable tasks must be deslgned. Our 5 not fully successful in this sense, 3 Reference Notes .an P. B. Paroling policy feedback (supp1e_ 1 Report 8). Davis, Ca11f.: National Count-,1 ime and Delinquency Research Center, 1973. 2 ns L. T., Gottfredson, D. M., _Robison, J. 0:, lowsky, A. Information selection and use in > decision making. Davrs, Ca11f.: National cil on Crime and Delinquency Research cm s 973. I q 1.- 1 References I. W. The psychology of a, V a ' ' rocess: A joint application of at. : tioiecisligdlr: and information-processmg 13531 In I. S. Carroll & J. W. Payne (Eds, and social behavior. Hillsdale, NJ ‘ ' 6. . - Erlbaum Assocrates, 197 I i . ; E1162: Discretionary justice: A preliminary m. r 'Urbana, 111.: University of minors Press: J. 5., & Payne, . sis of variance and the magmtude I édécg} Anglygeneral :7approach. Psychological ~ ' -73 . elin’hligzlithegdergjdsness of offenses: An evalua- by offenders and nonofienders. {swig-2m ninal Law and Criminology, 1975,1365) CW. R. J., & McAnany, P. O. ( Ina.- uni; orary punishment. Notre Dame, .. 1972. sity of Notre Dame Press: 1e outcomes from :m, M. Prediction of paro . . l imaries of case histories. Journal of (5:111:20 if! minal Law and Police Science, 19 , , 1} F The psychology of interpersonal relations in, York: Wiley, 1958. z A. M., Heinz, J..P., ,nce, M. A. Sentencmg aluation. Journal 0 y, 1976, 67, 1—31. .enmeier R., 8: . . aking: Rehabilitation, expertise, ' ' rsity mythology. American Unwe )73, 22, 477—525. _ . E, 8: Reitan, H . . ‘ :‘d’nsli‘gility as a basis for sanction???szc ritish Journal of Social and Clinic 969, 8, 217—226.. le, V. A., 8: Frieze,- ributions as a media or success. Journal of hology, 19:16., :iner, B. Ac revemen )y an attribution theorrs. d an” 4chie'uement motivation an _ Pressyl Morristown, N.].: General L Received January 7, E .2. y of causal g expecta d Social 1. E. Stabilit. tor in Chang!“ Personality 0” The question of what constitutes deception in advertising is a complex question from eitheralegal (e.g. Gellhorn, 1969) or linguis— tic (e.g. Garfinkel, in press a, in press b) point of view. Although Federal Trade Com- mission (FTC) decisions in deceptive adver— tising cases have until recently typically been based more on subjective criteria than on unbiased empirical research (Brandt & Pres— lon, 1977), the usefulness of social scientists’ [fSfing consumers’ understandings of adver— ’ tlsellients has been suggested, even though it has; seldom been implemented (Gardner, “d5 anding, categorizing, and measuring he!) in advertising. He presents three f Applied Psychology align. 62, No. s, 603—608 Comprehension of Pragmatic Implications in Advertising Richard J. Harris Kansas State University A methodology for testing consumers’ interpretations of advertisements was developed and used to test understanding of implied claims about products. College student subjects heard 20 brief commercials on tape and later evaluated statements about the products as true, false, or of indeterminate truth value, based on the advertisement. The independent variables were type of claim (asserted or implied), temporal relation of advertisement and test (test while hearing and reading advertisement, test immediately after hearing, or test 5—10 minutes later), and type of instructions (presence or absence of specific instruc- tions discriminating between assertions and implications). Results showed that discrimination of asserted and implied claims was very poor under the most real-life conditions but was vastly improved by the explicit instructions dis- criminating assertions and implications and by a reduction in the time between hearing the advertisement and receiving the test. Ramifications for information processing, consumer education, and the empirical determination of deceptive advertising are discussed. ' action that the present study examined. ) offers a “conceptual” approach to ., Georgetown University, Washington, ber 1976. on, and Pat Martin for data collection §ls, to Kris Bruno, and Ross Teske for In writing materials, and to Greg Monaco ‘Perch for helpful comments on the manu- developed and tested in the present study. _ for reprints may be sent to Richard J. eDartment of Psychology, Kansas State Manhattan, Kansas 66506. 603 categories of deception: the unconscionable lie, the totally false claim that could not be truthful even with considerable qualification; . the claim—fact discrepancy, which can be made true by proper qualification; and the claim— belief interaction, by which the advertisement “interacts with the accumulated attitudes and beliefs of the consumer in such a manner as to leave a deceptive belief or attitude about the product or service being advertised, without making either explicit or implicit deceptive claims” (p. 42). It is this claim—belief inter- Gardner (1975) suggests several research methods for assessing consumers’ understand— ings of advertisements. One approach involves showing advertisements to the consumer and then asking questions to determine their un- derstanding of them. This information could then be compared to the advertised claim and objective fact to determine if the advertiser’s claim and the consumer’s belief interacted in such a way as to make the total advertisement deceptive. It is this methodology that was The particular problem examined is the interpretation of implied claims about a prod— uct as asserted and unquestioned facts. Lan- guage communicates far more than what is 604 directly asserted by an utterance. One type of indirect meaning frequently communicated is pragmatic implication, which leads the hearer to believe something that is neither explicitly stated nor logically implied. Most often such “leading” comes through the interaction of the linguistic input and the hearer’s stored knowledge. For example, for most people The hungry python caught the mouse pragmat— ically implies that the mouse was eaten, whereas the same sentence with dog substi— tuted for python would carry no such implica~ tion, presumably because of the difference in our knowledge about dogs and pythons. Prag— matic implications are constructed as infer— ences by the hearer in real—life situations and stored in memory along with other directly and indirectly interpreted information. Several psycholinguistic studies (reviewed in Harris & Monaco, in press) have shown that subjects remember directly asserted and pragmatically implied information in the same way and typically do not discriminate that the. implied information was not directly stated in the input. This has been shown using a variety of memory tasks in both laboratory and quasi-applied settings (e.g., Brewer, in press; Brewer & Lichtenstein, 1975; Harris, 1974; Johnson, Bransford, & Solomon, 1973; Preston, 1967; Preston & Scharbach, 1971) and is a phenomenon extremely difficult to alter by prior instructions calling attention to the assertion—implication difference (Harris, Teske, & GinnS, 1975). The present study examined the compre- hension and memory of asserted and implied claims in commercial advertising. The labora- tory finding that subjects cannot discriminate asserted and implied claims could have im- portant ramifications for this area, since it is not clearly illegal to imply false or misleading information in advertising pragmatically. If such information is interpreted and remem- bered equivalently -to directly asserted false- hoods, then both should be equally illegal. There are many ways‘ in which an adver- tisement can pragmatically imply a false claim. One method is through the use of hedge words, which weaken an assertion but may leave a strong implication (e.g., the statement that Zap Pills may help relieve pain does not guarantee relief). Also, comparative adjectives RICHARD J . HARRIS may be used without ever specifying the 7,» ject of the deleted clause in the underls syntactic structure (e.g., Chore gives y. whiter wash would not be false if the de clause were than washing with coal d Tmperatives may be perniciously juxta 1n such a way as to imply a causal conn between two activities (e.g., Get throu whole winter without colds; talae Erad‘ Pills does not ensure that taking the p‘ produce the healthful effect). Asking a n tive question is a useful device for impl an affirmative answer that may not be (e.g., Isn’t quality the most important I to consider in buying aspirinP). Inappropriate, incomplete, or inadeq reporting of survey or test results may easily mislead the consumer. Reporting the number of respondents answering a way and not the percentage or sample. or vice versa, can be highly misleading appropriate sampling techniques or in pletely specifying the competition in com tive tests are similar flaws, as is repé only the number responding to a surve the number questioned may have bee larger. The reporting of piecemeal re imply an unwarranted general conclu also a misuse of test results (e.g., C ram p0 Leprechaun has more front sea room than a Datsun 3-210, more 1 hiproom than a Chevette, and a larger than a Ford Pinto to imply that the more interior room by all measures t three competitors). Commercial excerpts such as the above were used in the present study perimental items to examine subjects: C hension of implied claims in advertiSm effort to develop a methodology t0 t3“ ner’s (1975) conceptual approach t0: tion in advertising and to extend Ia'bo studies of memory to the applied Pro? consumer information processing- If : dicted that in spite of generally faihflg criminate asserted and implied c1?u jects would discriminate better received explicit instructions about the- of interpreting implications as asser . ; if they evaluated the claims Ilnder " 7 him Bou of a lesser memory load. Table 1 Sample ——_—-— Assertior than y Implicat.‘ than y Test sent Test sent Anacin .— _. ._. Assertion Hair C beautif Implicatii looking and na1 Test sente Test sente Subjects The sub Students f1 tive Englis Participatk Materials .RIS be used without ever specifying the sub )f the deleted clause in the underly'm, ctic structure (e.g., Chore gives you; r wash would not be false if the deleted: a were than washing with coal dust), ratives may be perniciously juxtaposed :h a way as to imply a causal comedic, aen two activities (e.g., Get through, a winter without colds; take Eradiwld does not ensure that taking the pins “in ice the healthful effect). Asking a neg, question is a useful device for implying; fhrmative answer that may not be trut , Isn’t quality the most important thing nsider in buying aspirin?) appropriate, incomplete, or inadequau. 'ting of survey Or test results may also. ,7 mislead the consumer. Reporting only lumber of respondents answering a give, and not the percentage or sample size1 ice versa, can be highly misleading, In; opriate sampling techniques or man. ly specifying the competition in compara-K tests are similar flaws, as 1s reporting; the number responding to a survey, who rumber questioned may have been mud. er. The reporting of piecemeal results y an unwarranted general conclusron Y a misuse of test results (e.g., stating lE npo Leprechaun has more front seat head: L than a Datsun B-210, more rear—ml 90m than a Chevette, and a larger hurl a F 01d Pinto to imply that the car = interior room by all measures than e competitors). 3mmercial excerpts such as th re were used in the present study as mental items to examine subjects: COW? ion of implied claims in advertisrng,ll;§; ‘t to deve10p a methodology to test G V ' s (1975) conceptual approach to de in advertising and to extend laboral ies of memory to the applied problem I ;umer information processing. It wasp}. ('D ('D N o: ‘3 ed that in spite of generally failing to "j iinate asserted and implied clairl15: 5" 5 would discriminate better 1f_ if rived explicit instructions about the PIt nterpreting implications as assert“? : 1ey evaluated the claims under CODd‘ ’ . lesser memory load. IMPLICATIONS IN ADVERTISING 605 Table 1 _ Sample Experimental Materials W Item Assertion commercial: Aren’t you tired of the snifl‘les and runny noses all winter? Tired of always feeling less than your best? Taking Eradicold Pills as directed will get you through a whole winter without colds. Implication commercial: Aren’t you tired of sniflies and runny noses all winter? Tired of always feeling less than your best? Get through a whole winter Without colds. Take Eradicold Pills as directed. Test sentence (critical): If you take Eradicold Pills as directed, you will not have any colds this winter. Test sentence (indeterminate filler) : Eradicold Pills have been proven more efl‘ective in laboratory tests than Anacin or Bayer. Assertion commercial: Ladies, don’tyou really want to look your very best? Women who use Roy G. Biv Hair Color really care about looking their very best. Think of yourself in any one of Roy G. Biv's seven beautiful and natural shades of hair color. Don't you deserve such rich and vibrant color? Implication commercial: Ladies, don’t you want to really look your very best? Women who really care about looking their best use Roy G. Biv Hair Color. Think of yourself in any one of Roy G. Biv's seven beautiful and natural shades of hair color. Don't you deserve such rich and vibrant color? Test sentence (critical): If a woman uses Roy G. Biv Hair; Color, she must really want to look her very best. Test sentence (false filler) : Roy G. Biv Hair Color comes in three colors: red, brown, and silver gray. Method Subjects The subjects were 180 undergraduate psychology students from Kansas State University. All were na— tive English speakers and received course credit for participation. They were run in small groups. Materials Twenty advertisements of between 20 and 87 words (M =49 words) were written. All were for fictional products and were of the type frequently heard on radio and television. Each commercial had two ver- sions, one in which a critical claim about the product was directly asserted and the other in which the same claim was, pragmatically implied. Also for each advertisement, two test statements were written. The first was a paraphrase or restatement of the informa- tion asserted or implied in the critical claim of the Sommercial. The second statement was a control lit-m of either false (for 10 items) or clearly indeter- minate (for 10 items) truth value. Sample com— merdals and test sentences appear in Table 1. There were. thus two lists of stimulus items, each with 10 1mlilrcation and 10 assertion commercials, in random "def, With any given item appearing in each form 0“ one list. In addition, there was one list of 40 test sentences, 20 testing the critical material either as- serted or implied to be true in the commercial, 10 selltences always false, and 10 always of indeter- Eslélgte truth value. The 20 fictional products adver- dm va’ere Knockout Sleep Capsules, Brimstone Ra- Ti . Hes, Eradicold Pills, Roy G. Biv Hair Color, F“St-Cola, Crampo Leprechaun compact car, Fifi’s ash1°11 Boutique, Crust Fluoride Toothpaste, Tingle outhl‘lash, Fake-o-late Snack, Jones-Corolla Type— writer, St. Abraham’s Aspirin, Armadillo Hatchback car, Gargoil Antiseptic, Moon Shees, Tarzan After Shave, Cornies Cereal, Killoweed Herbicide, Bicep— tennial Cream Rub, and Dippy Chips. Design and Procedure One third of the subjects (the immediate group) were told that this was a study in how well they understood information presented in commercials. They were told to listen to 20 commercials on the tape recorder and, after each commercial, rate the two sentences related to that commercial as true, false, or of indeterminate truth value, based on what they had heard in the commercial. The concept of indeterminate was carefully explained with examples to show that the test statement could be either true or false based on the input commercial. The subjects were also told to accept what they heard as true, to avoid the natural skepticism set many people bring to advertising. After each of the 20 commercials in the list, the experimenter stopped the recorder and waited until all subjects had rated both sentences for that item. Each pair of sentences for a given advertisement was on a separate page, and subjects were instructed not to turn the page until after they had heard the relevant commercial. Another 60 subjects were run under identical con- ditions except that they received a written transcript of each advertisement that they could read as they heard it on the tape and/or read as they evaluated the test sentences (the concurrent group). This group was used to establish a baseline response rate with no effects due to memory errors. The last 60 subjects (the delayed group) heard the same list of 20 advertisements after being told that this was an experiment in how people under- 606 Table 2 Mean Number of “True” Responses to Critical Items (out of 10) Type of claim Temporal condition Assertion Implication Delayed No instructions Instructions Immediate No instructions Instructions Concurrent No instructions Instructions 8.07 7.43 7.80 5.33 8.17 5.40 9.67 8.10 stand and react to commercials. This time the list was played straight through without stopping the recorder. At the end of the list, they were given the same answer sheet the other two groups received, with the same instructions to judge the sentences as true, false, or of indeterminate truth value, this time from long—term memory. They were also told that, if they did not remember anything about the product mentioned, they should simply place an X over the number of the test sentence and not judge its truth value. They were given as long as necessary to judge the 40 sentences. To reduce confusion of product names, the delayed subjects were given a list of the 20 products in the order in which they were pre- sented in the commercials. Half of the subjects in each of the three conditions heard only the instructions given above (the no— instructions group). The other 30 subjects in each of the three groups heard the following additional initial instructions explicitly warning them not to interpret implied claims as asserted: As you listen to these commercials, be careful that you do not interpret implied information as fact. Sometimes people, including advertisers trying to sell products, will not state a claim directly as asserted fact but rather will only strongly imply that the particular claim is true. You may infer that the advertiser has said something about his product which in fact he has only suggested, but he has suggested it in such a way that it is very easy for you to naturally, obviously, and normally expect the claim to be true. For example, consider the commercial “MooMoo Milk tastes great. Keep your family feeling healthy. Buy MooMoo Milk.” What claim does this com— mercial imply about the product but not definitely state as fact? Write this down on the bottom of your informed consent sheet. (Experimenter re— peats the sample commercial and waits for subjects to respond and asks someone to volunteer his/her answer). The commercial did not directly state that MooMoo Milk keeps your family healthy; it only implied that. Does everybody understand RICHARD J. HARRIS that? Sometimes, however, a commercial or Ogle piece of information does directly assert a fact without uncertainty. Consider this example; Moo Milk tastes great and it keeps your fig? feeling healthy. Buy MooMoo Milk.” In this as: it directly states that MooMoo Milk keeps your family healthy; it is more than merely implied Any questions? The study was thus a 3 X 2 X 2 design, with be tween-subjects variables of temporality (comm-rent immediate, or delayed) and instructions and th within-subjects variable of claim type (assertion o implication). Half of the subjects in each condition heard each of the two lists of materials; all subjects received the same list of sentences in the same 0rd,; on the response task. At the conclusion of the evaluation of the test sen. tences, subjects in the concurrent group were given a list of the 20 products advertised and were asked to check the 10 they would be most likely to buy after hearing the taped commercials. This additional task was given to the concurrent group, where any real effect of claim type or instructions would be most likely to show up, in order to test for transfer effects from the sentence-evaluation task to purchase decisions. Results critical test sentences, those paraphrasing asserted or implied claims, appear in Table Because such a response indicates a proce ing of that particular claim as fact, the nu ber of trues was the major dependent variab to be analyzed. The large majority of the no true responses were indeterminate, with th very few false responses presumably repr senting random error. The number of r sponses in the delayed group in the fourth r sponse category indicating no memory of product was less than 1%. of variance, treating both subjects and t sentences as random factors (Clark, 1973 The conservative F’mm _ several significant main effects and me tions. As predicted, more true responses I curred in the no—instructions than the insml tions group, F’m,n(1, 104) = 25.33, P< '0' Also, there were more trues to assertions t. implications, F’m,,,(1, 28) : 16.44, P<h Most critical, however, were the interaCUO Although the temporality main effect W35- significant, its double interactions Wlth S tometimes, however, a commercial or other 2: f information does directly assert a fact 5: : uncertainty. Consider this example: Moo. [ilk tastes great and it keeps your family . healthy. Buy MooMoo Milk.” In this case :tly states that MooMoo Milk keeps ye“, healthy; it is more than merely implied_ iestions? udy was thus a 3 X 2 X 2 design, with be. Jjects variables of temporality (concurrent, e, or delayed) and instructions and the ,bjects variable of claim type (8.5581110an )n). Half of the subjects in each condition :h of the two lists of materials; all subjects the same list of sentences in the same order : nse task. i ScEJiiclusion of the evaluation of the test sen. ubjects in the concurrent group were glven _: the 20 products advertised and were asked a the 10 they would be most likely t-O'buy iring the taped commercials. This additiOnal , ; given to the concurrent group, where any I ct of claim type or instructions would be ely to show up, in order to test for transfer ‘om the sentence—evaluation task to purchase Results IMPLICATIONS IN ADVERTISING structions type and claim type were, F’min(2, 193) : 4.28, p < .05, and F’mm(2, 106) = 614, p < .01, respectively, reflecting fewer trues to implications than assertions in the instructions condition of the immediate and concurrent groups. The instructions X claim type interaction approached significance, F’min (1, 39) = 3.57, .05 < p < .10, reflecting a greater attenuation of trues by the instruc- tions on implications than assertions. The triple interaction did not approach signifi- cance. A 2 X 2 analysis of variance was performed on the mean numbers of asserted-claim and implied-claim products checked under instruc- tions or no—instructions on the purchase de- cision task performed by the concurrent group. The mean numbers of products of each type checked appear in Table 3. As is ob- vious, there were no significant main effects or interactions, the largest F being .15. Thus there is no reason to reject the null hypothesis that a product is just as likely'to be selected for purchase if the advertising claim is im- = plied as if it is asserted. mean numbers of true responses to test sentences, those paraphrasing the :- d or implied claims, appear in Table 2. j ;e such a response indicates a process- 1 Discussion In examining Table 2, probably the most that particular claim as fact, the num- _ striking effect is just how high all the means trues was the major dependent variable are, that is, what a large proportion of both nalyzed. The large majority of the non— Implication and assertion items were answered esponses were indeterminate, With the ’ true under all conditions. The lowest 2 of the ew false responses presumably repre- ‘ 12 cells (5.33 and 5.40 out of 10) were con- 3' random error. The number of re— Siderably below the other 10 means but still as in the delayed group in the fourth re- deflect (over half of the items responded to ‘ category indicating no memory of the :t was less than 1%. I I : numbers of true responses to CI‘lthiil were analyzed by a 3 X 2 X 2 analySIS ‘iance, treating both subjects and test ices as random factors (Clark, 1973)- conservative F’m-In estimates revealed .1 significant main effects and lIltBl'aC: As predicted, more true responses 0C 1 in the no-instructions than the instrui' group, F’mm(1, 104) = 25.33,? < .0- there were more trues to assertions thai‘ :ations, F’mi,,(1, 28) : 16.44, p <50; critical, however, were the interactlonoi ugh the temporality main effect was I1 icant, its double interactions with 1“‘ as true. Thus, the general finding of several other studies was supported, in that subjects process and remember pragmatic implications very much like direct assertions. This failure to discriminate is also reflected in the pur- Chase decision data (Table 3). This confusion, however, reflects a general cognitive principle (Harns & Monaco, in press) that is not u“I‘lue to the advertising situation, although advertisements may be an especially difficult W136 of material (Bruno, 1977; PrestOn & SCliarbach, 1971). The claim type main effect reflects fewer tr116$ to implication than assertion items Overall, which is hardly surprising, although a1mOst all of this asymmetry occurs in the 607 Table 3 Mean Number of Items Selected for Purchase (Out of 10) by Concurrent Group Type of claim Group Asserted Implied No instructions 5.00 5.00 Instructions 4.90 5.10 instructions conditions, indicating that the instructions warning the subjects not to treat pragmatic implications as direct assertions did actually have some salutary effect, especially in the immediate and concurrent conditions. Thus, under optimal conditions subjects were often able to discriminate that the advertising claims in the experimental implication items were only implied. The fact that there were fewer true re— sponses to implication items in the immediate and concurrent than the delayed condition clearly supports Harris (1974), who obtained the same finding in a study using the same response task with lists of syntactically com- plex sentences. Thus, if subjects do not have to rely on their long-term memory and still have some verbatim representation or surface structure of the input, they are able to dis- criminate pragmatically implied material from that which is directly asserted. The relevance of the present study to the areas of advertising and consumer education is straightforward. The large number of true responses to implication items suggests that consumers listening to commercial advertising often process. implied claims as assertions of fact. The experimental condition most nearly approximating the position of the consumer listening to commercials is the delayed—no- instructions condition, where the mean num- ber of true responses was virtually identical for assertions and implications. If people remember implied claims as asserted fact, then it is perhaps appropriate that the FTC proscribe the implication of false claims as vigorously as the assertion of such claims. Preston (in press) already notes such a trend in recent FTC deceptive advertising claims involving implications. Interestingly enough, one of the experi— 608 mental items to have the greatest number of trues overall (74 and 83 out of 90 for im- plications and assertions, respectively) was a verbatim excerpt from a real Listerine com— mercial recently in the process of litigation for deceptive advertising. Research such as the present study could ultimately be valuable input for FTC and judicial decisions con- cerning alleged deception. Of course, defining exactly what constitutes false implication in either legal or industry- Wide guidelines is a formidable task. Clearly however, this is a worthy objective of future research in this area, namely to determine exactly what sorts of implications are func- tionally, that is, psychologically, equivalent to assertions. Upon such clarification, it would certainly be appropriate to make such false implications in advertising legally equivalent to false assertions as well. Another promising research avenue to be€ explored lies in the area of developing methods of teaching consumers to recognize when a product claim is merely implied and not as?» serted. The instructions used in the present study had a significant effect under certain conditions, though there is clearly room for improvement. Bruno (1977) has developed ' a 20-minute training session involving written exercises and teacher—student interaction; this technique has been successful in teaching adults and junior high school students to discriminate implied from asserted claims in commercials. Clearly, such education has po- tential for improving consumer information processing. References Brandt, M. T., & Preston, I. L. The Federal Trade Commission’s use of evidence to determine decep- tion. Journal of Marketing, 1977, 41, 54——62. Brewer, W. F. Memory for the pragmatic implica- tions of sentences. Memory 6' Cognition, in press. (. RICHARD J . HARRIS Brewer, W. F., & Lichtenstein, E. H. Recall of logi and pragmatic implications in sentences , dichotomous and continuous antonyms, Memo, G . Cognition, 1975, 3, 315—318. y Bruno, K. J. Training the distinction of pmgmat. implications and direct assertions in adolmcentzc. Unpublished master’s thesis, Kansas State versity, 1977. . Clark, H. H. The language—as-fixed-effect fallacy. A critique of language statistics in psychological.” search. Journal of Verbal Learning and 11mm, . Behavior, 1973, 12, 335—359. ' Gardner, D. M. Deception in advertising: A con ceptual approach. Journal of Marketing, 1975,39 40—46. Garfinkel, A. Linguistic aspects of truth in advertis ing. In Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Confe, ence on New Ways of Analyzing Variation, Etc Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press in press. (a) ’ Garfinkel, A. Truths, half-truths, and deception in advertising. Papers in Linguistics, in press. (b) Gellhorn, E. Proof of consumer deception before the FTC. Kansas Law Review, 1969, 17, 559—572. Harris, R. J. Memory and comprehension of implic3_ tions and inferences of complex sentences. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1974,13 626—637. Harris, R. J., & Monaco, G. E. The psychology of ' pragmatic implication: Information processing be- ‘ tween the lines. Journal of Experimental Psychol- / ogy: General, in press. Harris, R. J., Teske, R. R., & Ginns, M. J. Memory for pragmatic implications from courtroom testi- mony. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 1975, 6, 494—496. ' Johnson, M. K., Bransford, J. D., & Solomon, S. Memory for tacit implications of sentences. Jo nal of Experimental Psychology, 1973, 98, 203—2 Preston, 1. L. Logic and illogic in the advertis' process. Journalism Quarterly, 1967, 44, 231-239. Preston, 1. L. The FTC’s handling of puffery an other selling claims made “by implication." Jo nal of Business Research, in press. Preston, I. L., & Scharbach, S. E. Advertising: M0 than meets the eye. Journal of Advertising R search, 1971,11(3), 19—24. Russo, J. E. When do advertisements mislead consumer: An answer from experimental psi/Ch ogy. In B. B. Anderson (Ed.), Advances in c. sumer research (Vol. 3). Cincinnati, Ohio: A550“ tion for Consumer Research, 1976. Received December 23, 1976 ...
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