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Human+Population+Dynamics_ice - Human Population Dynamics:...

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Human Population Dynamics: Part I and Part II Miller (2003): Chapters 1 and 11 2009 World Population Data Sheet, Population Reference Bureau (PRB) Roger Ressmeyer
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Lecture Outline • Why study human population dynamics ? Population terminologies • How and why does human population change ? • What are the current situation and future projection of human population? • What do these trends mean for our resources and environment ? Case studies
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Population Dynamics Population = All members of a species that live in the same area at the same time Dynamics = Changes • Populations are dynamic in response to environmental conditions Population changes include Size (number of individuals) Density (number of individuals in a certain area) Dispersion (clumped, uniform, random) Age distribution (proportion of individuals of each age in a population)
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Why Study Human Population Dynamics? Earth’s life-support system Human culture sphere Miller (2003)
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Demography Demography = Study of characteristics of human populations , such as Distribution Density Size Growth Composition
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Dispersion Patterns of Population Clustered Uniform Random (without specific pattern) Cunningham and Cunningham (2009)
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More Developed vs Less Developed Countries United Nations (UN) classification: More developed (developed/ industrialized) countries •Eu rope • North America (U.S. + Canada) •Au s t ra l
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How Can Populations Change? Populations change due to Births (B) Deaths (D) •M ig ra t ion Im migration (I) (migration into a place) E migration (E)
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Net Population Change Net population change = (Birth + Immigration) – (Death + Emigration)
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Birth Rates and Death Rates Birth Rate (Crude Birth Rate) = Number of live births per 1000 people in a population in a given year Death Rate (Crude Death Rate) = Number of deaths per 1000 people in a population in a given year
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Birth Rates and Death Rates (cont) Worldwide, birth rates and death rates have decreased .
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Rates of birth, death, and natural increase per 1,000 population Natural Increase Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2004 Revision , 2005. (PRB 2006) Birth and Death Rates Worldwide Birth rate (2009) World: 20 China: 12 HK: 11 Death rate (2009) World: 8 China: 7 HK: 6 Death rate Birth rate 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 1950- 1955 1955- 1960 1960- 1965 1965- 1970 1970- 1975 1975- 1980 1980- 1985 1985- 1990 1990- 1995 1995- 2000 2000- 2005 Birth rate Death rate
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Exponential Growth Occurs When Resources are Not Limiting Exponential Growth = A quantity increases by a fixed percentage over a period of time J Curve (Exponential Growth Curve) Starts slowly • Within a very short time, the numbers begin to increase quickly Cunningham and Cunningham (2009) Exponential Growth
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A.D.
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Human+Population+Dynamics_ice - Human Population Dynamics:...

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