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L13+Biodiversity+and+Its+Significance+_Ko

L13+Biodiversity+and+Its+Significance+_Ko - Biodiversity...

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Biodiversity and Its Significance Cunningham & Cunningham (2009): Chapter 5 National Geographic
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Lecture Outline z What is Biodiversity ? z Three kinds of Biodiversity 1. Genetic Diversity 2. Species Diversity 3. Ecological Diversity z How many species are there? z Biodiversity Hot Spots z How do we benefit from diversity?
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What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity = Bio logical Diversity (the variety of living things) Three kinds of biodiversity 1. Genetic diversity 2. Species diversity 3. Ecological diversity National Geographic
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1. Genetic Diversity Genetic Diversity = The variety of versions of the same genes within individual species (gene: a unit of heredity) z Higher genetic diversity (more types of the same gene) z Populations can better adapt to changing environment z Higher chance that at least some individuals of the species can adapt to environmental changes z Higher chance for the species to reproduce and continue the population
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2. Species Diversity Species Diversity = The number of different kinds of organisms within individual communities or ecosystems The world’s largest flower, the flesh flower ( Rafflesia arnoldi ). (http://www.science.siu.edu) Cunningham & Cunningham (2008)
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3. Ecological Diversity z Niches (roles of species in an ecosystem) z Trophic levels z Ecological processes that capture energy, sustain food webs, and recycle materials Ecological Diversity = The richness and complexity of a biological community, including the number of WWF
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Cunningham & Cunningham (2009) How Many Species Are There? z Known: ~1.5 million z ~70%: Invertebrates (animals without backbones/ vertebrae) z Examples: I nsects , sponges, clams, worms z Estimation: 3-50 million
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Biodiversity Hot Spots: Rich and Threatened Biodiversity Hot Spot is a region that meets both of the following criteria 1. Contains 1,500 endemic plant species (0.5% of the world’s total) (endemic: found nowhere else in the world) 2. Has lost 70% of its original habitat
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Biodiversity Hot Spots (cont) Most of the world’s biodiversity are near the equator , especially tropical rainforests and coral reefs. z North America and Europe: 10% - 15% only Biodiversity hot spots. Numbers represent estimated endemic (locally unique) species. (Data from Conservation International) (Cunningham & Cunningham 2009) Equator South America North America Greenland Europe Asia Australia Africa
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Current record: 34 biodiversity hot spots Mountains of Southwest China http://www.biodiversityhotspots.org/xp/Hotspots/china/
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