L23-25+Water resources and pollution (B&W)

L23-25+Water resources and pollution (B&W) - Water:...

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1 Water: Resources and Pollution Chapter 10
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2 Outline: Hydrologic Cycle Water Compartments Water Availability Freshwater Shortages ± Increasing Water Supplies Water Management and Conservation Water Pollution Water Quality Today Water Pollution Control Water Legislation
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3 WATER RESOURCES Hydrologic Cycle Describes the circulation of water as it: ± Evaporates from land, water, and organisms. (Transpires from plants) - Enters the atmosphere. ¾ Condenses and precipitates back to the earth’s surfaces. ² Moves underground by infiltration or overland into rivers, lakes and seas.
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4 Hydrologic Cycle
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5 Average annual precipitation
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6 Major Water Compartments Nearly all the world’s water is in the oceans. Only about .02 percent of the world’s water is in a form accessible to us and to other organisms that rely on fresh water.
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7 Earth’s water compartments
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8 MAJOR WATER COMPARTMENTS Groundwater ± Second largest reservoir of fresh water. - Infiltration - Process of water percolating through the soil and into fractures and permeable rocks. ¾ Zone of Aeration - Upper soil layers that hold both air and water. ¾ Zone of Saturation - Lower soil layers where all spaces are filled with water. ² Water Table - Top of Zone of Sat.
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9 Groundwater
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10 Groundwater Aquifers - Porous layers of sand, gravel, or rock lying below the water table. ± Artesian - Pressurized aquifer intersects the surface. (Water flows without pumping) Recharge Zone - Area where water infiltrates into an aquifer. ± Recharge rate is often very slow. - Presently, groundwater is being removed faster than it can be replenished in many areas.
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11 Confined aquifer
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12 Major Water Compartments Rivers and Streams ± Precipitation that does not evaporate or infiltrate into the ground runs off the surface, back toward the sea. - Best measure of water volume carried by a river is discharge. ¾ The amount of water that passes a fixed point in a given amount of time. ² Usually expressed as cubic feet (or meter) per second.
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13 Table 10.3
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14 Major Water Compartments Wetlands ± Play a vital role in hydrologic cycle. - Lush plant growth stabilizes soil and retards surface runoff, allowing more aquifer infiltration. ¾ Disturbance reduces natural water- absorbing capacity, resulting in floods and erosion in wet periods, and less water flow the rest of the year.
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15 Wetland-marshes
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16 Major Water Compartments The Atmosphere ± Among the smallest water reservoirs. - Contains 0.001% of total water supply. - Has most rapid turnover rate. - Provides mechanism for distributing fresh water over landmasses and replenishing terrestrial reservoirs.
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17 WATER AVAILABILITY AND USE Renewable Water Supplies ± Made up of surface runoff and infiltration into accessible freshwater aquifers. Water-Rich and Water-Poor Countries
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L23-25+Water resources and pollution (B&W) - Water:...

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