Overpopulation_pop+control_part+2_students

Overpopulation_pop+control_part+2_students - Overpopulation...

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Overpopulation and Population Control – Part II Cunningham and Cunningham (2009): Chapter 4 Miller (2003): Chapter 11 Population Reference Bureau (PRB) (2009): www.prb.org
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Lecture Outline z Population Control z Case Study: Mainland China
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Controlling Population Growth Populations change due to z Births z Deaths z Migrations How can a government reduce the growth rate of its population?
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1. Controlling Migration Only a few countries allow large annual immigration (e.g. Canada, Australia, U.S.) z In U.S., 1990 1998 z Immigrants: ~30% of population Major types of migration flows z Labor z Family reunification z Refugees or asylees z War z Politics z Natural disasters (earthquakes, flooding, drought) z Environmental degradation (desertification, deforestation, resources shortage) z Illegal migrants
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News Clip (1): “Migrant Population Hits 140 Million” Associated Press in Beijing (6 January 2005) China's migrants now total 140 million About 10 per cent of China's 1.3 billion people are on the move, having left rural or less developed areas for new opportunities in the cities and more prosperous coastal regions , the official Xinhua News Agency said. China's migrant population, which was 70 million in 1973, hit 140 million in 2003… The vast numbers of migrants could make it hard for China to enforce its one child policy because of the difficulty of monitoring the births of migrant couples, the report said. About 70 per cent of China's migrants are aged between 15 and 35 Some 40 million Europeans went to the United States between 1820 and 1924
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2. Reducing Birth Rates a) Economic development b) Family planning c) Empowering women
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2a) Economic Development A couple may desire fewer children if they have z Increased access to education z More economic security z Do not need to consider children as old age security
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2a) Economic Development (cont) Frank Notestein (a demographer) (1945): Demographic Transition : A typical pattern of falling death rates and birth rates due to improved living conditions As countries become industrialized 1 st ) Death rates decline 2 nd ) Birth rates decline
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Demographic Transition Miller (2003) Stage 1 Preindustrial Stage 2 Transitional Stage 3 Industrial Stage 4 Postindustrial
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(i) Pre-industrial Stage Harsh living conditions z High birth rates to counteract high infant mortalities Miller (2003)
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(ii) Transitional Stage Industrialization begins z Death rates drop z Birth rates remain high Miller (2003)
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(iii) Industrial Stage Industrialization widespread z Birth rates drop z Death rates remain stable Miller (2003)
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(iv) Post-industrial Stage Relative high living standard z Birth rates fall further, equaling death rates z Then, birth rates < death rates Miller (2003)
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Demographic Transition: Developed Countries vs Developing Countries z Most developing countries: Transitional phase z Most developed countries: Industrial stage z A few developed countries: Postindustrial stage Rate (per 1000 of population) In postindustrial stage In transitional stage PRB 50 40 30 20 10 1970 1945 1920 1895 Death Rate Birth Rate 0 Mexico 1750 1800 1850 1900 1950 Death Rate Birth Rate Sweden 40 30 20 10 0
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2b) Family Planning
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