Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Notes Chapter One Structural...

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Exam 1 Notes Chapter One Structural Organization of the Human Body: -Atoms -Molecules -Cells -Tissue -Organs -Organ Systems -Organism Characteristics of Living Organisms: 1) Organization 2) Metabolism 4) Responsiveness 5) Adaptation 6) Regulation 7) Reproduction Anatomic Position: -Standing upright -Feet parallel, on the floor -Head level and looking forward -Arms at side of body -Palms facing forward and thumbs pointing away from body 3 Planes: 1) Coronal: (Frontal) divides the body into anterior (Front) and posterior (back) parts 2) Transverse: (Horizontal) divides the body into superior (upper) and inferior (lower) parts 3) Midsagittal: (median) divides the body into equal left and right halves. Anatomic Directions: Anterior = In front of Posterior = In back of Medial = toward the middle of the body Lateral = Away from the middle of the body Superior = above; toward the head Inferior = below; toward the feet Caudal = at the rear or tail end
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Cranial = at the head end Deep = On the inside; Underneath another structure Distal = farthest from the attachment point of a limb to the trunk Dorsal = the back side Proximal = Closest to the attachment point of a limb or trunk Superficial = above; toward the head Ventral = the belly side of a human Anatomical Terms Axillary = Armpit Brachial = Arm Buccal = Cheek Carpal = Wrist Cephalic = Head Cervical = Neck Digital = Fingers or toes Femoral = Thigh Gluteal = Buttock Inguinal = Groin Lumbar = Lower back; Loin Mental = Chin Orbital = Eye Umbilical = Navel Vertebral = Spinal Column Plantar = Sole of foot Body Cavities: 1) Vertebral Canal: Encases brain and spinal cord 2) Cranial Cavity: Formed by skull bones 3) Pericardial Cavity: Surrounds the heart 4) Pelvic Cavity: Contains Digestive, Reproductive, and Urinary systems *The abdominopelvic cavity can be divided into 4 Quadrants and 9 regions Axial Skeleton: Skull, ribs, sternum and vertebrae Appendicular Skeleton: Upper and lower limbs Ventral Cavities: 1) Thoracic: Superior cavity -Mediastinum: Contains pericardial cavity, thymus, trachea, esophagus and major blood vessels -Pericardial: Contains the heart -Pleural: Contains the lungs 2) Abdominopelvic: Inferior
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Parietal Layer: Lines internal body surface Visceral Layer: Covers the external surface of organs in the cavity Abdominopelvic Cavities: 1) Abdominal Cavity = Superior 2) Pelvic Cavity = Inferior 9 Abdominal Regions: (tic tac toe board) - going across 1) Right hypochondriac region 2) Epigastric region 3) Left hypochondriac region 4) Right lumbar region 5) Umbilical region 6) Left lumbar region 7) Right iliac region 8) Hypogastric region 9) Left iliac region 4 Quadrants: 1) Right Upper Quadrant 2) Left Upper Quadrant 3) Right Lower Quadrant 4) Left Lower Quadrant Chapter 6: Skeletal System Functions of Bones: 2) Movement 3) Hemopoiesis 4) Storage of mineral and energy reserves 4 Classes of Bones: 1) Long Bones: Greater length than width 2) Short Bones: Nearly equal length and width
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Exam 1 Notes - Exam 1 Notes Chapter One Structural...

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