Exam 2 Notes

Exam 2 Notes - NFS 443 Exam 2 Notes CHAPTER 19:...

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NFS 443 Exam 2 Notes CHAPTER 19: MEDICATIONS, HERBAL PRODUCTS, & DIET DRUGS: PRESCRIPTION DRUGS: -Usually given to treat serious conditions and may cause sever side effects -Sold by prescription only which ensures that a physician has evaluated the patient’s medical condition and determined the benefits of using meds outweigh the risks of incurring side effects OVER THE COUNTER DRUGS: -OTC can be used safely and effectively without medical supervision -Used to treat less serious illnesses that are easily self-diagnosed -Aspirin, decongestants, antacids GENERIC DRUGS: -Brand-name drugs are usually given patent protection for 20 years after the patent is submitted -After the patent protection expires, generic versions of the drug can be sold. -Must have the same biological effects as the original drug. -Must contain same active ingredients -Be identical in strength, dosage form and route of administration -Cost 20-75% less than brand names SIDE EFFECTS: -The majority of side effects have been revealed with most drugs -Rare side effects are sometimes detected only after a drug has been more widely used. -These effects occur b/c drugs are used for longer periods or in different circumstances than originally anticipated DRUG-DRUG INTERACTIONS: -When a person uses multiple drugs, one drug may alter the effects of another drug, and the risk of side effects increases. -Common in older adults who use multiple meds DIET-DRUG INTERACTIONS: -Substances in the diet may alter the effectiveness of drugs, and drugs may alter food intake, digestion absorption, metabolism, or excretion of nutrients MEDICATION ERROR: -Any preventable action that causes inappropriate drug use or patient harm due to mistakes made by health professionals or patient. -Occur when incorrect drugs/doses are given. PREVENTING MEDICATION ERROR: -Bar codes used on medications and patient ID bracelets allow verification of correct meds
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-Error messages alert personnel if the drug, dose, or timing of administration is inappropriate -National education campaign- stopping the use of ambiguous medical abbreviations POPULATIONS AT RISK FOR SIDE EFFECTS TO MEDS: -Pregnant and lactating women -Children -People with medical conditions that are not the main focus of the study. -Elderly REDUCING RISKS OF EFFECTS OF MEDS: -Advise patient that drug shouldn’t be taken unless absolutely necessary -Discuss dietary or lifestyle changes that may have benefits similar to those of drugs (Increasing fiber and exercise instead of taking laxatives) -Request a complete list of prescription meds, OTC drugs and dietary supplements patient is taking -Verify patient knows how to take medication properly and advise potential interactions -Encourage patient to keep track of adverse effects -Encourage patient to purchase all medications at the same pharmacy so the pharmacist can alert the physician and patient to potential problems -Include info about drug safety HERBAL PRODUCTS: (1) BLACK COHOSH: -Relief of menopausal symptoms EFFECTS: -Rare, occasional stomach upset, headache, weight gain (2) CHAPARRAL:
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Exam 2 Notes - NFS 443 Exam 2 Notes CHAPTER 19:...

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