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Exam 1 Notes - NFS 441 Exam 1 Notes Journal Article Heizer...

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NFS 441 Exam 1 Notes *** Journal Article: *** Heizer WD, Southern S, McGovern S. The Role of Diet in Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Adults: A Narrative Review. J Am Diet Assoc. 2009; 109:1204-14. CHAPTER 15: Experimental Design & Critical Interpretation of Research WHAT IS RESEARCH? -A studious inquiry or examination, especially a critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation having for it aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts OR the practical application of such conclusions, theories, or laws. REFEREED/ PEER-REVIEWED JOURNALS: -Potential publication critically examined by other scientists -Helps to ensure reliability of research papers published in that journal -Best Examples in Nutrition: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Journal on Nutrition, Nutrition Reviews, Journal of the American Dietetic Association THE SCIENTIFIC METHOD: (1) Research purpose or problem- Express the question to be answered or the problem to be solved (2) Hypothesis- Predicts the outcome of the research that will follow and therefore a solution to the problem or an answer to the question (3) Experimentation- describes how the research itself was conducted, using one of the many methods available to the researcher (4) Interpretation or Analysis- Interprets the data collected from the experimentation so as to understand what it means (5) Conclusion- Answers the originally posed question, and confirms or disproves the hypothesis (6) Theory Formulation- Presents a statement founded on the conclusion TYPES OF RESEARCH: APPLICATION BASIC: -Expands existing knowledge by discovering new knowledge APPLIED: -Seeks to solve problems usually in a field setting.
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OTHER CLASSIFICATIONS: -STRATEGY: Historical, Survey -SETTING: Laboratory, Field -PURPOSE: Descriptive (use statistics), Analytical (evaluate the consumption of nutrient versus some type of health situation) RESEARCH METHODOLOGIES: -QUALITATIVE: Uses verbal data to record case studies -QUANTITATIVE: Uses data expressed in numbers -HISTORICAL METHOD: (Qualitative) - Not as valuable in the field of nutrition -Useful in qualitative aspects of obesity (was it a high percentage of the population 10, 20, 30 years ago?) -Seeks to explain the cause of past events and to interpret current happenings on the basis of these findings -Relies on firsthand data -DESCRIPTIVE SURVEY METHOD: (Qualitative) - Case Studies -Investigator observes across a defined population group whatever variable is under study -Variable may be physical (size, color, shape, strength) or cognitive (achievement, beliefs, attitudes, intelligence) -ANALYTICAL SURVEY METHOD: (Quantitative) - May use descriptive statistics (for example; mean, range, correlation coefficient) -May use inferential statistics to estimate a parameter in a general population from a random sample -May use inferential statistics to determine whether 2 or more random samples show differences for a specific parameter.
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