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THEcellreview - General Biology THE CELL P.Beller History...

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General Biology THE CELL P.Beller History 1665. Robert Hooke 1674. Anton van Leeuwenenhoek 1838. Schleiden. Plants-cells 1839. Schwann. Animals- cells 1855. Virchow. All cells come from existing cells. Organelles : Perform cellular functions. Cell membrane : Regulates what enters and leaves the cell “Mosaic model” double bi- layer of phospholipids, embedded proteins and attached carbohydrates. Diffusion and Osmosis: Molecules like alcohol, water, small lipids Facilitated Diffusion: Some Ions, Glucose, salts Active transport: (energy required) Sodium –Potassium pump Na (out) K (in) Movement of the cell membrane: Phagocytosis, Exocytosis, Pynocytosis Nucleus: Controls most cell processes and contains hereditary information (DNA) Chromatin : DNA (in its uncoiled form) + proteins (histones) Nucleolus: sites of assembly of ribosomes Nuclear envelope: double membrane layers with many pores Cytoskeleton: network of protein microfilaments that helps the cell maintain its shape; flexible framework that also supports organelles in the cell. It is also involved in many
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