8Tues_Diversity- eukaryotes

8Tues_Diversity- eukaryotes - Lab Exercise: Diversity of...

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Lab Exercise: Diversity of Eukaryotic Microbes OBJECTIVES 1. To observe representatives of major types of microbes. 2. To cultivate select representatives of major types of microbes. 3. Understand key characteristics of the different eukaryotic microbes and groups found within these Kingdoms. INTRODUCTION Eukaryotic organisms have a nucleus in a membrane. They are typically more complex than prokaryotic organisms. They make up the Domain Eukarya and include the major kingdoms of Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Protista is a diverse group that includes many different types of organisms, divided into the animal-like protists, or protozoa, and the plant-like protists, or algae. Protozoa are examples of Protistans that we will survey in this lab. Fungi are a kingdom of organisms that may be unicellular or multicellar, yeasts or molds. All fungi absorb their nutrients from their environment. Animals are multicelluar organisms that ingest their nutrients. This lab will be presented in three parts, one focusing on Protozoa, one on Fungi and one on Helminths (parasitic worms of the animal kingdom). Protozoa These are unicelluar eukaryotes. They do not have cell walls, but do have a membrane called a pellicle surrounding the cell. They have a nucleus and membrane bound organelles. They typically form cysts, a hardy dormant life-form that allows survival of harsh environments. Protozoa are classified into four phyla or groups based on their means of locomotion: Flagellates (or phylum Mastigophora) Amoebae (or phylum Sarcodina) Sporozoans (or phylum Apicomplexa) and Ciliates (or phylum Ciliophora).
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Flagellates have flagella for locomotion. Amoebae move by use of a pseudopod. Ciliates move with the aid of multiple cilia. The sporozoans have no means of locomotion and therefore have a lifestyle that makes them all internal parasites. Pond water is a great source of assorted protozoan microbes. See the virtual pond ( http://microscopy-uk.org.uk/index.html?http://microscopy-uk.org.uk/ponddip/ ). Fungi Fungi can exist as unicellular yeast or multi-cellular molds. The mold species consist of numerous filaments called hyphae . A mass of filaments is called mycelium and is what gives the mold its “fluffy” appearance. They live either as parasites or as saprophytes , absorbing organic material from their environment. Their cell walls generally have
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8Tues_Diversity- eukaryotes - Lab Exercise: Diversity of...

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