Nov 2 Slides for Posting

Nov 2 Slides for Posting - Introduction to the Study of...

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Introduction to the Study of Psychology PSYC1001 – November 2, 2009 Note: This is the beginning of the material for the final exam
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Goals for today’s class… Learning Pavlov & Classical Conditioning (it’s nature Skinner & Operant Conditioning (it’s nature & function)
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From the text… Chapter 6 A lot of studies – focus on the point. Thus, asking yourself – Why are they using this as an example? What point is it illustrating? Be able to understand (and generate examples for) classical conditioning and operant conditioning How can learning account for different kinds of behaviour?
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Learning Learning is an adaptive process in which the tendency to perform a particular behaviour is changed by experience. Learning generally refers to the effect on behaviour of certain types of interactions between the individual and the environment ( or between environmental events ), which includes all sources of stimulation impinging on the individual’s sense receptors within a given period. Making connections (associations) between events.
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Learning Behavioural theories attempt to relate units of behaviour, called responses , to units of the environment, called stimuli (the plural of stimulus). Focusing upon explaining the behaviour and predicting future behaviour (relating future stimuli to future responses)
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Learning “Learning is an adaptive process…” Evolutionary Theories would focus on the adaptive aspects of learning to survival. Organisms that were able to “learn” (i.e. determine relations among events) were able to survive in a changing environment. But learning still occurs even if the environment is not changing – the organism “learns” that the environment has not changed. (the bear and the stream)
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Learning Learning can not be observed directly, only inferred from changes in behaviour. The “ah-ha” expression does not count as observable learning Learning can occur even when there is no noticeable change in behaviour. i.e. Stop, drop & roll
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Habituation The Orienting Response – our attention is drawn to a novel stimulus Habituation – learning not to respond to an unimportant event that occurs repeatedly (whistle vs. Baby’s cry) Ignoring unimportant stimuli is adaptive for survival Sensitization – based on some prior stimulus, we become more responsive (more sensitive) to a subsequent stimulus. Not necessarily the same stimulus. (horror movie creaking floor)
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Habituation Short-term Habituation Temporary The result of stimuli that are presented quickly in a short period Long-term Habituation Lasting Results when stimuli are spread over a longer period Dog hunting example
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Classical Conditioning involves learning about the conditions that predict that a significant event will occur. Also called “Pavlovian Conditioning”
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This note was uploaded on 12/24/2009 for the course PSYC 1001 taught by Professor Chrismotz during the Fall '09 term at Carleton CA.

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Nov 2 Slides for Posting - Introduction to the Study of...

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