Equilibriumv2

Equilibriumv2 - Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium 12 10 8 6...

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Page ‹#› Equilibrium Concentrations 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 time (artificial) Series1 Series2 Chemical Equilibrium I. General Comments A. Reversible Processes ! 3 Fe + 4 H 2 O Fe 3 O 4 + 4H 2 B. Nonreversible Processes ! 2 Na + 2 H 2 O 2 NaOH + H 2 ! Cooking an egg C. Equilibrium 1. deals with reversible processes 2. is DYNAMIC BaSO 4 ! Ba 2+ + SO 4 2- Chemical Equilibrium Chemical Equilibrium Ba SO 4 Ba 2+ SO 4 2- SO 4 2- Ba = radio- labelled Ba 2+ saturated Ba SO 4 solution Chemical Equilibrium Ba SO 4 Ba 2+ Ba 2+ and Ba SO 4 is present after a time SO 4 2- SO 4 2- Ba 2+ = radio- labelled C. Equilibrium 1. deals with reversible processes 2. is DYNAMIC BaSO 4 ! Ba 2+ + SO 4 2- 3. represents two processes occurring at the same rate Chemical Equilibrium
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Page ‹#› A. The equilibrium constant 1. General Form a A + b B ! c C + d D II.Equilibrium Quantified K c = C [ ] c D [ ] d A [ ] a B [ ] b II.Equilibrium Quantified 2. An example: N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) ! 2 NH 3 (g) K c = NH 3 [ ] 2 N 2 [ ] 1 H 2 [ ] 3 3. Form of K may change: a. Gaseous Systems: II.Equilibrium Quantified Kp = P NH 3 2 P N 2 1 P H 2 3 where " n = moles (gaseous)products - moles (gaseous) reactants K P = K C RT ( ) ! n II.Equilibrium Quantified b. Reversing an equation: 2 NH 3 (g) ! N 2 (g) + 3 H 2 (g) K c = N 2 [ ] 1 H 2 [ ] 3 NH 3 [ ] 2 II.Equilibrium Quantified II.Equilibrium Quantified c. Multiple Steps: K 2 N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ! 2 NO (g) What is K for: N 2 O (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) ! 2 NO (g)
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Page ‹#› II.Equilibrium Quantified c. Multiple Steps: 1/K 1 N 2 O (g) ! (g) + N 2 (g) K 2 N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ! 2 NO (g) What is K for: N 2 O (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) ! 2 NO (g) 1/2 So the NET K is the product of individual K’s for appropriate “pieces”! II.Equilibrium Quantified d. Changing Coefficients 2 SO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) ! 2 SO 3 (g) II.Equilibrium Quantified K c = SO 3 [ ] 2 SO 2 [ ] 2 O 2 [ ] II.Equilibrium Quantified SO 2 (g) + 1/2 O 2 (g) ! SO 3 (g) K ' c = SO 3 [ ] 1 SO 2 [ ] 1 O 2 [ ] Note: K c ' = K c In general: where n is the factor used in converting the old K to the new K Multiply by 1/2 n = 1/2 K new = K old n II.Equilibrium Quantified 4. Role of solids and liquids a. AgCl (s) ! Ag + (aq) + Cl - (aq) II.Equilibrium Quantified K c = Ag + [ ] Cl !
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Equilibriumv2 - Chemical Equilibrium Equilibrium 12 10 8 6...

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