Solution_lecture

Solution_lecture - Chapter 2: Solutions Solutions - terms...

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Chapter 2: Solutions • Solutions - terms • Concentrations - quantitative • Reaction Stoichiometry(part 3) • Thermodynamic Processes-Solutions • Colligative Properties Chapter 2: Solutions • Solutions - terms • Concentrations - quantitative • Reaction Stoichiometry(part 3) • Thermodynamic Processes-Solutions • Colligative Properties 1. Definition -a homogeneous mixture 2. Solute(s) - substance(s) present in smaller amount 3. Solvent - substance present in larger amount Aqueous--water is the solvent! Solutions - terms Solutions - terms 4. Dilute solutions - low ratio of solute:solvent 5. Concentrated solutions - high ratio of solute:solvent 6. Saturated solutions - contains all the solute that will dissolve at that temperature. • Particles in solution –Ions :When ionic solid dissolves OR solute reacts with water (NaCl, HCl) –Molecules: Molecular substances dissolve (methanol, glucose) –True solutions: don’t show Tyndall effect-- OK, So What’s that ? A question: Why no Tyndall effect? Solutions Chapter 2: Solutions • Solutions - terms • Concentrations - quantitative • Reaction Stoichiometry(part 3) • Thermodynamic Processes-Solutions • Colligative Properties
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• Molarity • Mole fraction • Molality Solutions - Concentration terms Old friends Defined: #grams of X x 100 100 grams solution (mass percent) or # mL of X x 100 100 mL of solution (volume percent) Solutions - Concentration terms Percent by volume Liquids frequently are %volume mL of X x 100 100 mL of solution A liqueur is 38% ethanol by volume. A 1.5 L bottle contains what volume of ethanol ? Solutions - Concentration terms Molarity • Defined: # mol of X = # M 1 L of solution So 5 mol of CaCl 2 dissolved in 500 mL of solution is a ?? M solution of CaCl 2. Solutions - Concentration terms Mole fraction- • Useful in solid solutions (alloys) • DEFINITION: • Sum of all mole fractions = 1 Solutions - Concentration terms # mol Y total # mol present = X Y • An example: Dissolve 10.0 g of NaOH in 250. g of water. What is X NaOH ? F. W. of NaOH = 40.0 g/mol
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Solution_lecture - Chapter 2: Solutions Solutions - terms...

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