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Thermodynamics2 - T h e rm o d y n a m ics E n th a lp...

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Page ‹#› ! Spontaneous processes: Processes that occur without intervention. ! Examples: 1. Ball rolls downhill. 2. Heat flows from a warmer object to a colder object. 3. Wood burns to form CO 2 and H 2 O. Thermodynamics - Enthalpy ! Exothermic reactions release energy as stronger bonds are formed. ! Exothermic reactions have ! H < 0. ! You might expect exothermic reactions to be more spontaneous than endothermic reactions. Thermodynamics - Enthalpy ! Spontaneous Reactions:Always ! H<0 ? Water(ice) spontaneously melts when placed on the table at room T. ( ! H>0) Must be something else ?? What about randomness ?? Thermodynamics - Enthalpy Thermodynamics - Probability ! Consider a molecule, A. What is the probability of all the molecules being in the LEFT bulb? ANSWER: 1/2 ! Consider two molecules , A & B. What is the probability of all the molecules being in the LEFT bulb? ANSWER: 1/2x 1/2 = 1/4 or (1/2) 2 Thermodynamics - Probability ! Number of Relative molecules probability 1 1/2 2 (1/2) 2 3 (1/2) 3 10 (1/2) 10 n (1/2) n Thermodynamics - Probability
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Page ‹#› ! Nature tends to move spontaneously from a state of lower probability to one of higher probability. ! Nature tends to move spontaneously from more ordered to more random states.
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