acidsbases - Acids, Bases, & SaltsEquilibrium That...

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Page ‹#› Acids, Bases, & Salts- Equilibrium • That which we call a rose by any other name would smell as sweet. Romeo & Juliet: Act1, Scene 1 • So how do we define acids, bases & salts? • Said another way-How do acids “act” ? Definition: Acid • In chemistry, a compound that can react with a base to form a salt, the hydrogen of the acid being replaced by a positive ion. The majority of acids contain oxygen, and are known as oxyacids;those not containing oxygen are termed hydrogen acids. (Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary) Definition: Acid Acids usually have the following properties: (a) a sour taste (b)solubility in water (c) the ability to turn blue litmus red (d) the power of uniting in definite proportions with the metals, called bases, forming salts, the metal replacing the hydrogen of the acid (e) the power of decomposing most carbonates, causing effervescence; Definition: Base • In chemistry, a substance which (a)forms a salt when it reacts with an acid in terms of the modern theory of acids and bases, (b)a substance that removes hydrogen ions (protons) from an acid and (c)combines with them in a chemical reaction. Acids, Bases, & Salts A titration: With a constant drop rate, the volume of base added can be measured as time. Acids, Bases, & Salts
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Page ‹#› Acids, Bases, & Salts Acid-Base Systems Arrhenius System- Based upon physical properties Bronsted-Lowry System —Based on HOW SUBSTANCE ACTS with regard to protons Lewis System —Based on how substance acts with regard to electron pairs Solvent System —Based on cations/anions characteristic of solvent Acid-Base Systems Arrhenius System- Based upon physical properties Bronsted-Lowry System Based on HOW SUBSTANCE ACTS with regard to protons Lewis System —Based on how substance acts with regard to electron pairs Solvent System —Based on cations/anions characteristic of solvent I.Systems: A. Bronsted - Lowry Acid/Bases B. Water-Based Solutions C. pX notation D. The pH Scale Acid-Base Systems Acid-Base Systems A. Bronsted-Lowry 1. acid = proton (H + ) donor 2. base = proton (H + ) acceptor Note the Action words! Acid-Base Systems A. Bronsted-Lowry 1. acid = proton (H + ) donor 2. base = proton (H + ) acceptor 3. other terminology: conjugate base-an acid minus one H + conjugate acid-a base with one H + added
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Page ‹#› Acids and Bases - Systems 4. example: HCl + H 2 O <=> H 3 O + + Cl - A B CA CB B. Water-based solutions aka (aqueous solutions) • H 2 O(l) H + (aq) + OH - (aq) • Kw = [H + ][OH - ] = 1.0 x 10 -14 at 25˚C • Recall that pure liquids are omitted from equilibrium expressions ?
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acidsbases - Acids, Bases, &amp; SaltsEquilibrium That...

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