kinetics - Kinetics- whats it all about? Denitions Factors...

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Page ‹#› • Definitions • Factors affecting rate –Concentration,nature of reactants,temperature,catalysts • Rate Laws • Mechanisms Kinetics- what’s it all about? Definitions Webster’s Concise Dictionary: Kinetics- adj. Producing motion; n.pl. The branch of mechanics that deals with the dynamics of material bodies. Kinetics- what’s it all about? Kinetics Factors Affecting Rates 1. Concentration of reactants 2. Temperature 3. Catalysts 4. Surface Area 5. Nature of Reactants A. General 1. Rates change as reactants are consumed. 2. Figure 13.4 indicates rates for reaction of Br 2 and HCO 2 H. Rate Measurements Rate Measurements Figure 13.4- Kotz & Treichel courtesy of Jack Kotz Rate Measurements • Let’s look at another example: 2 ICl + H 2 I 2 + 2HCl • Begin with 2.00M ICl + 1.00M H 2 • Follow the concentration of species with time (Data supplied by Ray Davis, UT-Austin)
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Page ‹#› [I Cl] M [H2] time [I2] [HCl] 2.000 1.000 0 0.000 0.000 1.348 0.674 1 0.326 0.652 1.052 0.526 2 0.474 0.948 0.872 0.436 3 0.564 1.128 0.748 0.374 4 0.626 1.252 0.656 0.328 5 0.672 1.344 0.586 0.293 6 0.707 1.414 0.530 0.265 7 0.735 1.470 0.484 0.242 8 0.758 1.516 Kinetics-Rate Measurements Table 16-1--courtesy of Ray Davis 10 8 6 4 2 0 0.000 1.000 2.000 3.000 [ICl] [H2] [I2] [HCl] Reaction of H2 with ICl Data from Table 16-1 time(s) [ICl] B. Rate Expressions (Rate Laws) 1. Relation between initial rates and reactant concentration. 2. Consider aA + bB cC Rate Law: Rate = k [A] x [B] y where k = specific rate constant (valid at a specific T) x and y are orders of dependence Rate Measurements [ ] = concentration (Molarity) and ! = x + y = overall order 3. Determine the expression experimentally with several experiments. Let’s try one !!!!!!!! aA + bB cC Rate Measurements Expt. [A]i [B]i Initial Rate 1 0.10 M 0.10 M 8.0 x 10 -5 M/s 2 0.20 M 0.10 M 3.2 x 10 - 4 M/s 3 0.20 M 0.20 M 1.28x 10 - 3 M/s Rate Measurements Solve : Rate = k [A] x [B] y What are the values of X and Y ?
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This note was uploaded on 12/25/2009 for the course CH CH 201 taught by Professor Banks during the Spring '09 term at N.C. State.

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kinetics - Kinetics- whats it all about? Denitions Factors...

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