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lecture15-slides - Why sex exists is a major UNsolved...

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10/6/09 1 Why sex exists is a major, UNsolved problem in evolutionary biology
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10/6/09 2 Sexuality = Reproduction that involves creating new genetic combinations - Transfer of genetic material - Crossing over Asexuality = Reproduction without creating new genetic combinations (aka: Parthenogenesis) Sexual Asexual Costs of Sex: The Cost of Making Males
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10/6/09 3 The Cost of Making Males Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Population Size (log scale) Asexuals Sexuals Second descendants The Cost of Meiosis Initial Parents First descendants
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10/6/09 4 Additional Costs of Sexual Reproduction: Sexually Transmitted Diseases U.S. (2006) STDs in Sierra-dome Spiders reduce egg-hatching success
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10/6/09 5 Additional Costs of Sexual Reproduction: -Breaking up Co-Adapted Gene Complexes (example Bristle-Cone Pines) -Competition for Mates (examples injuries to male Belding’s ground squirrels and rhesus macaques BUT, Sexual reproduction must be advantageous over evolutionary time (historically) because: 1. Sex is nearly ubiquitous
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