es_100_lecture_15

es_100_lecture_15 - Terminology/Conceptslastlecture Trophic...

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    Terminology/Concepts last lecture: Trophic cascades—be able to recognize what one is and describe examples Why are trophic cascades mostly all wet? Propose and discuss hypotheses. Disease ecology overview.
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    Lyme disease:
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    What determines number of deer and  mice? Acorns Gypsy moth abundance Habitat fragmentation
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    What controls disease outbreaks?
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    Why are we seeing rise in epidemic  disease and new diseases in wild  populations ? Ecology of future will include huge component of disease ecology. Disease Ecology, EEMB 40.
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    Lecture 15. Mutualisms & Facilitation.  (Chapter 8 Townsend) 
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    Mutualistic relationship Organisms of different species interact to their mutual benefit Reciprocal exploitation where each partner is a net beneficiary
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    Mutualisms typically ignored in ecology  classes Dominant species on earth are dependent upon mutualisms Trees depend on root mutualists (mycorrhizal fungi) Corals depend on mutualisms with symbiotic algae (dinoflagellate) Most vertebrates depend on gut symbionts for successful digestion
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    Mutualisms are essential Mutualism ≠ symbiosis Symbionts are organisms that live within or on the outside of other organisms. Can be parasitic or mutualistic or commensal (neither negative nor positive)
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    Mutualisms take on a wide range of  relationships: 1. Defensive. One organisms provide protection for another from predators/herbivores or parasites. Cleaner fish…obtain food scraps from big fish Benefit to bigger fish ?
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    Hypothesis: reduce parasite loads on big fish Test: remove cleaner fish from three reefs, leave two as controls (with cleaner fish) Fig. 8.9, Townsend 12 Days 1 night 1 full day Cleaner fish are not active at night
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