es_100_lecture_16

es_100_lecture_16 - Terminologylastlecture:...

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    Terminology last lecture: Mutualism -define and distinguish from symbiosis Mycorrhizae , arbuscular mycorrhizae, ectomycorrhizae —similarities and differences N fixation, -describe the mutualism
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    Theme last lecture: Types of Mutualisms Defensive Dispersal Pollination Nutrient acquisition Mycorrhizae N fixation Gut symbionts
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    Mycorrhizae—a few extra details Relationship is ancient Fossils of early land plants show mycorrhizal fungi in roots!! (300 million yr ago). These mutualisms are NOT 1:1…usually there are many species of fungi per host plant We know very little about whether fungal species compete with each other for plant root or within root for carbon—is there a carbon/root niche that they divide up? Likewise we don’t know if different fungal species provide different benefits to host plant.
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    Types of Mutualisms Defensive Dispersal Pollination Nutrient acquisition Mycorrhizae N fixation Gut symbionts
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    4. Nutrient acquisition C. Gut symbionts. Involve mainly bacteria living in guts Bacteria conduct fermentation, help host to digest cellulose, lignin, fiber Bacteria get steady food supply and constant temp. environment Widespread across the animal kingdom Best studied in termites & vertebrates
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    Gut Symbionts Generally multi-species communities In humans these are mostly bacteria Acquired at birth May act as filter against other microorganisms Can be affected by antibiotics
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    Summary Points about mutualisms: They are EVERYWHERE and are an integral part of most food webs. Most are not strictly 1:1 relationships Important to species survival and functioning. Can have implications for ecosystem processes (e.g. nutrient accretion)
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    Lecture 16: I.  Facilitative interaction = where one  species benefits another What is difference between mutualism and facilitative interactions?
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    Facilitations  need not benefit both  partners
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    Desert shrubs facilitate occurrence of annual species Do shrubs gain any benefit are they harmed?
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es_100_lecture_16 - Terminologylastlecture:...

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