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Unformatted text preview: 1 Page 1 Issues: (a) Expectation effects on perception (b) Context effects on perception (c) Theory of top-down processing 1. Types of top-down effects 2. Bias effects Signals vs. noise, sensitivity, bias, payoffs, examples 3. Environmental context effects Non-meaningful stimuli, meaningful stimuli 4. Theory of top-down processing 4.1. Word superiority effect 4.2. Interactive activation model Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing Top refers to areas of brain responsible for higher-level cognition. Examples: goal setting, decision-making, language, memory. Bottom refers to lower-level areas of brain that receive input from sensation. Examples: vision, audition. Top-Down processing refers to processing that originates in higher cognition and proceeds downwards towards sensation. Bottom-Up processing refers to processing that originates in sensory areas and proceeds upwards towards areas responsible for higher cognition. 1. Expectation/Bias 2. Context 3. Higher levels of analysis that affect lower ones Your own expectations or biases can affect the way you perceive something. What are some examples? A frequently encountered task: Detecting a tumor on an x-ray Looking for a particular exit on the highway. In General: detecting some signal in the presence of noise/distractions. Signal Detection Theory (SDT) addresses how we make these detection decisions. Demonstrates how expectations/biases (top-down influences) effect perception. 2 Page 2 Signal: something in the environment you are trying to detect....
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2009 for the course PSYCH 240 taught by Professor Gehring during the Fall '08 term at University of Michigan.
- Fall '08
- Cognitive Psychology