L5TopDown.6slides - 1 Page 1 Issues(a Expectation effects...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Page 1 Issues: (a) Expectation effects on perception (b) Context effects on perception (c) Theory of top-down processing 1. Types of top-down effects 2. Bias effects Signals vs. noise, sensitivity, bias, payoffs, examples 3. Environmental context effects Non-meaningful stimuli, meaningful stimuli 4. Theory of top-down processing 4.1. Word superiority effect 4.2. Interactive activation model • Top-Down vs. Bottom-Up Processing – “Top” refers to areas of brain responsible for higher-level cognition. Examples: goal setting, decision-making, language, memory. – “Bottom” refers to lower-level areas of brain that receive input from sensation. Examples: vision, audition. – Top-Down processing refers to processing that originates in higher cognition and proceeds downwards towards sensation. – Bottom-Up processing refers to processing that originates in sensory areas and proceeds upwards towards areas responsible for higher cognition. 1. Expectation/Bias 2. Context 3. Higher levels of analysis that affect lower ones Your own expectations or biases can affect the way you perceive something. What are some examples? • A frequently encountered task: – Detecting a tumor on an x-ray – Looking for a particular exit on the highway. – In General: detecting some “signal” in the presence of noise/distractions. • Signal Detection Theory (SDT) addresses how we make these detection decisions. • Demonstrates how expectations/biases (top-down influences) effect perception. 2 Page 2 • Signal: something in the environment you are trying to detect....
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L5TopDown.6slides - 1 Page 1 Issues(a Expectation effects...

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