L21DeductionShort - Deductive Reasoning Lecture Outline s...

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Deductive Reasoning
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Lecture Outline Issues: (a) What are the phenomena of deduction? (b) How do people reason deductively? 1. Introduction to deduction What it is, types of deductive problems 2. Phenomena of deductive reasoning Syllogistic reasoning: difficulty, validity, content, atmosphere, figural, conversion Wason selection task: difficulty, content 3. Theories of deductive reasoning Formal rules Mental models
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Deductive Reasoning: Examples Quantifier (Categorical Syllogisms) Some businessmen are wealthy All wealthy people are powerful Therefore some businessmen are powerful Comparative (Linear Syllogisms) Mighty Joe Young is more powerful than Godzilla King Kong is more powerful than Mighty Joe Young Therefore, King Kong is more powerful than Godzilla Conditional If you write a good research proposal, then you will get funded. You write a good research proposal You will be funded
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Quantifiers: Syllogisms All men are animals. Some animals are aggressive Therefore, some men are aggressive All men are animals Some animals are female Therefore, some men are female All A are B Some B are C Therefore, some A are C
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Quantifier types All doctors are rich. Some lawyers are dishonest. No politician is trustworthy. Some actors are not handsome.
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Difficulty Effect Syllogisms are hard Subjects typically get ~50% wrong Some B are A No C are B What, if anything, necessarily follows?
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Validity effect Some A’s are B’s
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L21DeductionShort - Deductive Reasoning Lecture Outline s...

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