Midterm Study Guide
Yellow River (north), Yangzi (Yangtse) River (south), flooding
Loess (yellow dirt / yellow earth), origins of agriculture
north: (compared to the south) (more) cold, flat, arid, little rainfall; flood as well as drought; short
growing season; wheat and millet; travel by land, on foot, on horseback / donkey backs or carts
drawn by animals (c.f. south – travel by water)
Yellow River flows through loess highlands and then makes a sharp turn towards east, bringing
Yellow River floods because silt builds up and people build higher dykes, and when floods do occur,
South: (compared to the north) wet, warm, more rainfall; rice and double-cropping; suited to boat
travel because Yangzi and many small rivers were navigatabl.
Yangzi River starts in the Tibetan highlands and has many tributes. Brings much more water than
Three Gorges Dam (pros and cons)
pros: (clean) energy production, economic development, flood control
cons: shortage of funds, ecological (environmental) damages, forced resettlement
- REVIEW THE MAP!
Homonyms, 4 Tones, Characters (radical and phonetic; advantages for representing
Homonyms: words that have different meanings but have the same pronunciation and / or the same
Advantage: it’s fast to read because each character presents its own meaning.
Dialects: Mandarin (north), Wu, Min, Hakka, Cantonese
Two different Romanization systems: Pinyin (Chinese gov.) and Wade-Giles (old / western way)
Hominids: Homo Erectus, Peking Man
Homo Erectus: appeared nearly a million years ago (Ice Age); could stand (erect), hunt, make fire,
use chipped stones as tools. Peking Man is best example of Homo Erectus
Yang-shao (modern Shaanxi, Gansu provinces, 5000-3000BC): simple burials, decorated pottery
Lung-shan (Longshan): modern Shanghai, rituals like feasting or sacrafice, elaborate
forms of pottery, jade.
Archeology vs. Traditional Accounts
* Distinctly Chinese history begins in about 10,000BC.
Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di, Yao, Shun, Yu
Culture Heroes: Fu Xi (Ox-tamer), Shen Nong (Divine farmer), Huang Di (Yellow Lord)
- Fu Xi: domesticated animals and invented family.
- Sheng Nong: invented plugh and hoe.