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ealc350g Midterm Study Guide

ealc350g Midterm Study Guide - 1 Midterm Study Guide...

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Midterm Study Guide Geography Yellow River (north), Yangzi (Yangtse) River (south), flooding Loess (yellow dirt / yellow earth), origins of agriculture - north: (compared to the south) (more) cold, flat, arid, little rainfall; flood as well as drought; short growing season; wheat and millet; travel by land, on foot, on horseback / donkey backs or carts drawn by animals (c.f. south – travel by water) - Yellow River flows through loess highlands and then makes a sharp turn towards east, bringing yellow silt. - Yellow River floods because silt builds up and people build higher dykes, and when floods do occur, everything collapes. - South: (compared to the north) wet, warm, more rainfall; rice and double-cropping; suited to boat travel because Yangzi and many small rivers were navigatabl. - Yangzi River starts in the Tibetan highlands and has many tributes. Brings much more water than Yellow River. Three Gorges Dam (pros and cons) - pros: (clean) energy production, economic development, flood control - cons: shortage of funds, ecological (environmental) damages, forced resettlement Major Cities - REVIEW THE MAP! Language Homonyms, 4 Tones, Characters (radical and phonetic; advantages for representing Chinese), dialects - Homonyms: words that have different meanings but have the same pronunciation and / or the same spelling - Advantage: it’s fast to read because each character presents its own meaning. - Dialects: Mandarin (north), Wu, Min, Hakka, Cantonese Two different Romanization systems: Pinyin (Chinese gov.) and Wade-Giles (old / western way) Early China Hominids: Homo Erectus, Peking Man - Homo Erectus: appeared nearly a million years ago (Ice Age); could stand (erect), hunt, make fire, use chipped stones as tools. Peking Man is best example of Homo Erectus Neolithic Cultures: Yang-shao (modern Shaanxi, Gansu provinces, 5000-3000BC): simple burials, decorated pottery Lung-shan (Longshan): modern Shanghai, rituals like feasting or sacrafice, elaborate forms of pottery, jade. Archeology vs. Traditional Accounts * Distinctly Chinese history begins in about 10,000BC. Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di, Yao, Shun, Yu Culture Heroes: Fu Xi (Ox-tamer), Shen Nong (Divine farmer), Huang Di (Yellow Lord) - Fu Xi: domesticated animals and invented family. - Sheng Nong: invented plugh and hoe. 1
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- Huang Di: invented arrows, bows, boats, carts, ceramics, writing, silk; faught great battles agasinst alien tribes. - the great five pre-dynasty rulers: Fu Xi, Shen Nong, Huang Di, Yao, Shun. (Yu is the first king of Xia) 3 Sage Rulers: Yao, Shun, Yü Themes: Qualification to rule, Filial Piety, Water control - Yao devised calendar and rituals.
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