Part A Some terms: Anti-Semitism: coined in 1873 by Wilhelm Marr in a pamphlet. Enlightenment: basically throughout the 18 th c. Romanticism: late 18 th c. – early 19 th c. - if referring to music specifically: 1820s - 1900 Karl Marx: 1818-1883 - Born to parents who had been Jewish for a long time, but later his father got baptized, and Marx was baptized when he was six. - Cofounder of Marxism (with Engels) - Ideas not really heard of during his life time. - Marxism didn’t get many people’s attention until after Marx’s death - Some tried interpreting Marx’s work and concluded that Marx regarded Jews as the embodiment of capitalism and the creators of its evils, and that Marx was embarrassed of his Jewish background. But some others say this is nonsense. Adolf Hitler (1889-1945): dates - joined the Nazi Party (DAP) in 1919 - became leader in 1921 - Beer Hall Putsch 1923 - Mein Kampf published 1925 - Appointed chancellor 1933 and remained at the position till 1945 - Head of state (Fuhrer) 1934 - 1945 Jewry in Music, 1850 Author – Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Purpose – Wagner attacks / accuses Jews of being evil, inartistic, and unwanted. Historical Context – Richard Wagner is a 19 th century composer, living during the “Romantic Era” of the music field and also a time when a few Jewish figures in the fields of arts and literature became notable in Germany. These figures include composer Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847, so when Wagner wrote this essay,
Mendelssohn already died), lyric poet Heinrich Heine (Germany’s most famous Jewish writer), and liberal political essayist Ludwig Boerne.
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- Summer '07
- Primary sources, Richard Wagner