Lec - Preview Definitions Types of nuclear decay Atomic...

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Preview Definitions Types of nuclear decay
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Isotopes Atomic Number (Z) Mass Number (A) Number of protons Number of neutrons plus protons The same number of protons, but different mass number
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Z X A 6 C 12 6 C 13 6 C 14 Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14 Different Isotopes of Carbon Neutrons + Protons Just Protons # of neutrons = A-Z
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The nuclear stability of an element (like everything else) depends on both thermodynamics and kinetics The definitions change slightly for nuclear decay
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Thermodynamic Stability The potential energy of a particular nucleus compared to the sum of the potential energies of its component protons and neutrons. Kinetic Stability The probability that a nucleus will undergo decomposition to form a different nucleus (radioactive decay)
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Unstable Region: Too many protons Unstable Region: Too many neutrons
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There are many different types of radioactive decay. Each one will be discussed according to its role in obtaining a stable molecule.
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ß-particle (ß-ray) 234 Th 90 Ex. 91 234 Pa + 0 e Note the added proton Nothing more than a high-energy electron ß-particles are formed during nuclear decay: -1 Represents an electron Neutron Proton + Electron 0 + 1 - 1
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Unstable Region: Too many protons Unstable Region: Too many neutrons (ß-particle Production)
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are too many neutrons, causing the element to reside outside the band of stability. Positrons are typically formed when there
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This note was uploaded on 12/26/2009 for the course CHEM CHEM 6C taught by Professor Hoeger during the Spring '08 term at UCSD.

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Lec - Preview Definitions Types of nuclear decay Atomic...

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