08___Position___Motion - Introduction Many industrial...

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Introduction 1 Many industrial processes require both linear and angular position and motion measurements. These are required in robotics, rolling mills, machining operations, numerically controlled tool applications, and conveyers. In some applications it is also necessary to measure speed, acceleration, and vibration. Some transducers use position sensing devices to convert temperature and/ or pressure into electrical units and controllers can use position sensing devices to monitor the position of an adjustable valve for feedback control.
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Basic terms 2 Absolute position is the distance measured with respect to a fixed reference point and can be measured whenever power is applied. Incremental position is a measure of the change in position and is not referenced to a fixed point. If power is interrupted, the incremental position change is lost. An additional position reference such as a limit switch is usually used with this type of sensor. This type of sensing can give very accurate positioning of one component with respect to another and is used when making master plates for tooling and the like.
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Basic terms 3 Rectilinear motion is measured by the distance traversed in a given time, velocity when moving at a constant speed, or acceleration when the speed is changing in a straight line. Angular position is a measurement of the change in position of a point about a fixed axis measured in degrees or radians, where one complete rotation is 360° or 2
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