TheArtcleCut - A study of the use of a multimedia module...

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A study of the use of a multimedia module for teaching listening comprehension strategies in cultural context. 1. Listening Comprehension Strategies Second language listening has recently been viewed not in terms of how to make the learner’s comprehension of the content become more detailed but in terms of understanding what the learner actually does to comprehend an oral text. Classroom listening often imitates real life listening situation through deploying authentic texts and developing students’ motivation to listen. Listening is viewed as a complex process which involves encouraging L2 students to develop the set of listening subskills and strategies that the students already have already acquired when they learned their native language. It is also assumed that there is no single right strategy of listening comprehension. Rather, different learner strategies compete to be deployed according to individual learner characteristics, sociocultural context, means of communication between the teacher and learner etc. (Oxford, 1989) According to Goh (2000), more proficient students used a wider range of cognitive and metacognitive tactics which interacted efficiently to facilitate comprehension. They used prior knowledge, linguistic knowledge and contextual information, three important comprehension resources, to process input and manage the processing. In general, listening instruction has favored the development of top-down processes at the expense of developing bottom-up processes (e.g., Field, 1998; Hulstijn, 2003; Vandergrift, 2004). Vandergrift states that listeners use any relevant information at their disposal to interpret what they hear. This knowledge helps on the hand to confirm the initial hypothesis that a student derives from the literal meaning of an utterance; on the other hand, activating cultural knowledge serves as a compensation mechanism when there is a discrepancy between the literal meaning of an utterance and its contextual meaning. So either comprehension breaks down or listeners may use compensatory strategies, contextual factors, and any other relevant information available to them to guess at what was not understood. 2. Cultural background in second language acquisition. 2.1. Implicature in cultural and linguistic contexts One of the most widely used top down compensatory strategies is the inference. When the literal meaning does not match the recipient’s expectations she thinks that the meaning should be looked for elsewhere, not directly in the utterance. The message thus is to be read through understanding of implicature. The implicature underlies the inferential process when the speaker derives the meaning of an utterance in terms of the context in which it occurs. The implicature in its turn involves the knowledge of the world beyond the literal meaning of the utterance Bouton (1999). To interpret the implicature the speaker and hearer must have a common perception
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TheArtcleCut - A study of the use of a multimedia module...

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